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1788–89 United States presidential election

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Template:Infobox Election The 1788–89 United States presidential election was the first quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Monday, December 15, 1788 to Saturday, January 10, 1789, under the new Constitution ratified in 1788. George Washington was unanimously elected for the first of his two terms as president, and John Adams became the first vice president. This was the only U.S. presidential election that spanned two calendar years (1788 and 1789).

Under the Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, the United States had no head of state. Separation of the executive function of government from the legislative was incomplete, as in countries that use a parliamentary system. Federal power, strictly limited, was reserved to the Congress of the Confederation, whose "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" was also chair of the Committee of the States, which aimed to fulfill a function similar to that of the modern Cabinet.

The Constitution created the offices of President and Vice President, fully separating these offices from Congress. The Constitution established an Electoral College, based on each state's Congressional representation, in which each elector would cast two votes for two different candidates, a procedure modified in 1804 by ratification of the Twelfth Amendment. Different states had varying methods for choosing presidential electors.[1] In 5 states, the state legislature chose electors. The other 6 chose electors through some form involving a popular vote, though in only two states did the choice depend directly on a statewide vote in a way even roughly resembling the modern method in all states.

The enormously popular Washington was distinguished as the former Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. After he agreed to come out of retirement, it was known that he would be elected by virtual acclaim; Washington did not select a running mate, as that concept was not yet developed.

No formal political parties existed, though an informally organized consistent difference of opinion had already manifested between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Thus, the contest for the Vice-Presidency was open. Thomas Jefferson predicted that a popular Northern leader such as Governor John Hancock of Massachusetts or John Adams, a former minister to Great Britain who had represented Massachusetts in Congress, would be elected vice president. Anti-Federalist leaders such as Patrick Henry, who did not run, and George Clinton, who had opposed ratification of the Constitution, also represented potential choices.

All 69 electors cast one vote for Washington, making his election unanimous. Adams won 34 electoral votes and the vice presidency. The remaining 35 electoral votes were split among 10 different candidates, including John Jay, who finished second with nine electoral votes. Washington was inaugurated in New York City on April 30, 1789, 57 days after the First Congress convened.

Candidates[edit source | edit]

Though no organized political parties yet existed, political opinion loosely divided between those who had more stridently and enthusiastically endorsed ratification of the Constitution, called Federalists or Cosmopolitans, and Anti-Federalists or Localists who had only more reluctantly, skeptically, or conditionally supported, or who had outright opposed, ratification. Both factions supported Washington for President. Limited, primitive political campaigning occurred in states and localities where swaying public opinion might matter. For example in Maryland, a state with a statewide popular vote, unofficial parties campaigned locally, advertising platforms even in German to appeal and drive turnout by a German-speaking rural population. Organizers elsewhere lobbied through public forums, parades, and banquets.

Federalist candidates[edit source | edit]

Candidate Position State
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg
John Adams
Former Minister to Great Britain Massachusetts
John Jay (Gilbert Stuart portrait).jpg
John Jay
United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs New York
100px
John Rutledge
Former Governor of South Carolina South Carolina
JohnHancockSmall.jpg
John Hancock
Governor of Massachusetts Massachusetts
Samuel Huntington - Charles Willson Peale.jpg
Samuel Huntington
Governor of Connecticut Connecticut
General Benjamin Lincoln-restored.jpg
Benjamin Lincoln
Former U.S. Secretary of War Massachusetts
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg
George Washington
Former Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army Virginia

Anti-Federalist candidates[edit source | edit]

Candidate Position State
George Clinton by Ezra Ames.jpg
George Clinton
Governor of New York New York

General election[edit source | edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of yellow are for the Federalists.

No nomination process existed. The framers of the Constitution presumed that Washington would be elected unopposed. For example, Alexander Hamilton spoke for national opinion when in a letter to Washington attempting to persuade him to leave retirement on his farm in Mount Vernon to serve as the first President, he wrote that "...the point of light in which you stand at home and abroad will make an infinite difference in the respectability in which the government will begin its operations in the alternative of your being or not being the head of state."

Uncertain was the choice for the vice presidency, which contained no definite job description beyond being the President's designated successor while presiding over the Senate. The Constitution stipulated that the position would be awarded to the runner-up in the Presidential election. Because Washington was from Virginia, then the largest state, many assumed that electors would choose a vice president from a northern state. However, the stipulation that the President and Vice-President must be from different states dates only to the Twelfth Amendment of 1804. In an August 1788 letter, U.S. Minister to France Thomas Jefferson wrote that he considered John Adams and John Hancock, both from Massachusetts, to be the top contenders. Jefferson suggested John Jay, John Rutledge, and Virginian James Madison as other possible candidates.[2] Adams received 34 electoral votes, one short of a majority - because the Constitution did not require an outright majority in the Electoral College prior to ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to elect a runner-up as Vice President, Adams was elected to that post.

Voter turnout comprised a low single-digit percentage of the adult population. Though all states allowed some rudimentary form of popular vote, only 6 ratifying states allowed any form of popular vote specifically for Presidential electors. In most states only white men, and in many only those who owned property, could vote. Free black men could vote in four Northern states, and women could vote in New Jersey until 1807. In some states, there was a nominal religious test for voting. For example, in Massachusetts and Connecticut, the Congregational Church was established, supported by taxes. Though such tests and establishments were outlawed by the new federal Constitution, the constitution did not give the courts power to eliminate unconstitutional laws (Marbury v. Madison was not decided until 1803), and the Bill of Rights did not apply to state laws until the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1868.

Voting was hampered by poor communications and infrastructure and the labor demands imposed by farming. Two months passed after the election before the votes were counted and Washington was notified that he had been elected President. Washington spent one week traveling from Virginia to New York for inauguration. Similarly, Congress took weeks to assemble.[citation needed]

As the electors were selected, politics intruded, and the process was not free of rumors and intrigue. For example, Hamilton aimed to ensure that Adams did not inadvertently tie Washington in the electoral vote.[3] Also, Federalists spread rumors that Anti-Federalists plotted to elect Richard Henry Lee or Patrick Henry President, with George Clinton as vice president. However, Clinton received only three electoral votes.[4]

Results[edit source | edit]

Popular vote[edit source | edit]

Popular Vote(a), (b), (c)
Count Percentage
Federalist electors 39,624 90.5%
Anti-Federalist electors 4,158 9.5%
Total 43,782 100.0%

Source: U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 11, 2006).

(a) Only six of the 11 states eligible to cast electoral votes chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(b) Less than 1.8% of the population voted: the 1790 Census would count a total population of 3.0 million with a free population of 2.4 million and 600,000 slaves in those states casting electoral votes.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.

Electoral vote[edit source | edit]

Template:Start U.S. presidential election box Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:End U.S. presidential election box

Source: Template:National Archives EV source Source (Popular Vote): A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825[5]

(a) Only 6 of the 10 states casting electoral votes chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(b) Less than 1.8% of the population voted: the 1790 Census would count a total population of 3.0 million with a free population of 2.4 million and 600,000 slaves in those states casting electoral votes.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
(d) As the New York legislature failed to appoint its allotted eight electors in time, there were no voting electors from New York.
(e) Two electors from Maryland did not vote.
(f) One elector from Virginia did not vote and another elector from Virginia was not chosen because an election district failed to submit returns.
(g) The identity of this candidate comes from The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections (Gordon DenBoer (ed.), University of Wisconsin Press, 1984, p. 441). Several respected sources, including the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress and the Political Graveyard, instead show this individual to be James Armstrong of Pennsylvania. However, primary sources, such as the Senate Journal, list only Armstrong's name, not his state. Skeptics observe that Armstrong received his single vote from a Georgia elector. They find this improbable because Armstrong of Pennsylvania was not nationally famous—his public service to that date consisted of being a medical officer during the American Revolution and, at most, a single year as a Pennsylvania judge.

Popular vote
Washington
100.0%
Others
0.0%
Electoral vote
Washington
85.2%
Adams
42.0%
Jay
11.1%
Harrison
7.4%
Rutledge
7.4%
Others
17.3%
Non cast
14.8%

Results by state[edit source | edit]

Popular vote[edit source | edit]

George Washington
Federalist
George Washington
Anti-Federalist
State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
#
Connecticut 7 no popular vote 7 no popular vote - CT
Delaware 3 685 100 3 no ballots 685 DE
Georgia 5 no popular vote 5 no popular vote - GA
Maryland 8 5,539 71.63 6 2,193 28.37 - 7,732 MD
Massachusetts 10 17,740 100 10 no ballots 17,740 MA
New Hampshire 5 5,909 100 5 no ballots 5,909 NH
New Jersey 6 no popular vote 6 no popular vote - NJ
New York 8 legislature did not choose electors on time - NY
North Carolina 7 did not yet ratify Constitution - NC
Pennsylvania 10 6,711 90.90 10 672 9.10 - 7,383 PA
Rhode Island 3 did not yet ratify Constitution - RI
South Carolina 7 no popular vote 7 no popular vote - SC
Virginia 12 3,040 70.16 10 1,293 29.84 - 4,333 VA
TOTALS: 91 39,624 90.50 69 4,158 9.50 0 43,782 US
TO WIN: 35

Electoral vote[edit source | edit]

State Washington Adams Jay Harrison Rutledge Hancock Clinton Huntington Milton Armstrong Telfair Lincoln Total
Connecticut 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 14
Delaware 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
Georgia 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 10
Maryland 6 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
Massachusetts 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20
New Hampshire 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
New Jersey 6 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
Pennsylvania 10 8 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 20
South Carolina 7 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Virginia 10 5 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 20
Total 69 34 9 6 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 138

Source: Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections[6]

Electoral college selection[edit source | edit]

The Constitution, in Article II, Section 1, provided that the state legislatures should decide the manner in which their Electors were chosen. Different state legislatures chose different methods:[7]

Template:Start electoral college selection Template:Electoral college selection row Template:Electoral college selection row Template:Electoral college selection row Template:Electoral college selection row Template:Electoral college selection row Template:Electoral college selection row Template:End electoral college selection

(a) New York's legislature did not choose electors on time.
(b) One electoral district failed to choose an elector.

See also[edit source | edit]

Footnotes[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. See "Alternative methods for choosing electors" under Electoral College.
  2. Meacham 2012
  3. Chernow, 272-273
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Bibliography[edit source | edit]

  • Bowling, Kenneth R., and Donald R. Kennon. "A New Matrix for National Politics." Inventing Congress: Origins and Establishment of the First Federal Congress. Athens, O.: United States Capitol Historical Society by Ohio U, 1999. 110-37. Print.
  • Chernow, Ron (2004). "Alexander Hamilton". London, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1101200858.
  • Collier, Christopher. "Voting and American Democracy." The American People as Christian White Men of Property:Suffrage and Elections in Colonial and Early National America. N.p.: U of Connecticut, n.d, 1999.
  • Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  • Dinkin, Robert J. Voting in Revolutionary America: A Study of Elections in the Original Thirteen States, 1776–1789. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982.
  • Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
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  • Novotny, Patrick. The Parties in American Politics, 1789–2016.
  • Paullin, Charles O. "The First Elections Under The Constitution." The Iowa Journal of History and Politics 2 (1904): 3-33. Web. February 20, 2017.
  • Shade, William G., and Ballard C. Campbell. "The Election of 1788-89." American Presidential Campaigns and Elections. Ed. Craig R. Coenen. Vol. 1. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2003. 65-77. Print.

External links[edit source | edit]

Template:George Washington Template:John Adams Template:John Hancock Template:USPresidentialElections Template:1788 United States elections Template:1789 United States elections Template:State results of the 1788–89 U.S. presidential election