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1Malaysia official logo

1Malaysia (pronounced One Malaysia in English and Satu Malaysia in Malay) is a programme designed by Malaysian 6th Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak in summer 2009[1] to promote ethnic harmony, national unity, and efficient governance.

National campaign[edit source | edit]

1Malaysia is a concept introduced by former Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak to promote national unity. The eight values of the concept are high performance culture, accuracy, knowledge, innovation, integrity, strong will, loyalty and wisdom.”[2][3]

Logo and slogan[edit source | edit]

An official logo and slogan has been introduced along with the launch of 1Malaysia concept. The logo is the symbol of '1' which incorporates the national Jalur Gemilang flag and the word Malaysia. The government has spent RM38 million to promote former Prime Minister Najib Abdul Razak’s 1Malaysia concept in 2010, said Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department T Murugiah.[4]

Slogan[edit source | edit]

Year Theme
2009 Rakyat Didahulukan, Pencapaian Diutamakan (People First, Performance Now)
2010 Menjana Transformasi (Generating Transformation)
2011 Transformasi Berjaya, Rakyat Sejahtera (Transformation Successful, People Prosperous)
2012 Janji Ditepati (Promises Fulfilled)
2013 Rakyat Didahulukan (People Come First)
2015 Sehati Sejiwa (One Heart, One Soul)

Public policy[edit source | edit]

Improving government efficiency is an important aspect of 1Malaysia. The use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), metrics and targets more typically used in private business, and National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) is thus naturally an important part of the 1Malaysia effort. Najib says, "The government is committed to carrying out a transformation programme as its main agenda based on approaches and philosophy of 1Malaysia – people first, performance now."[5]

Immediately after assuming the office of Prime Minister of Malaysia Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak introduced a series of KPIs to measure and improve the efficiency and quality of government services as well as realising the 1Malaysia concept. Najib said that KPIs were implemented to ensure “the people’s satisfaction...whether they are satisfied with our service, whether we have solved their problems.”[6]

Najib's announcement of the KPI effort was generally well received. Then Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said the KPI formula was a yardstick against which the people could measure the performance of Najib and the government. He said the KPIs would provide motivation for every minister to perform well.[7]

The KPIs provide a mechanism for the evaluation of ministries and other government agencies including performance reviews carried out every six months. Each ministry has been required to establish specific KPIs including that focus on policy outcomes over the traditional emphasis on inputs typically found in government performance assessments and planning. KPIs include detailed job descriptions and goals for ministers, deputy ministers, and some other senior government officials.[6]

Najib has identified six major policy areas in which KPIs will play an especially important role in improving the effectiveness of the Malaysian government. These are known as National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). The NKRAs include crime prevention, reducing government corruption, increased access to quality education, improvements in the standard of living for low income groups, upgrades to rural infrastructure, and improvements in public transportation.[8]

Najib also introduced a new cabinet position to support the Unity and Performance Minister in implementing the KPI system. Idris Jala, the former CEO of Malaysia Airlines, was appointed Minister Without a Portfolio and CEO of Performance Management and Delivery Unit (Pemandu), to work with Dr. Koh Tsu Koon in training over 500 government officers to implement the KPI system. As CEO of Pemandu Idris will support the work of Koh, who is the minister in charge of National Unity and Performance Management.[9]

Public services[edit source | edit]

Klinik 1Malaysia
The 1Malaysia School Milk provided to school children across the country as part of the government efforts to enhance students health.
Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia in Sarikei

1Malaysia clinics[edit source | edit]

Former Prime Minister Najib's Budget 2010 includes funding for 50 medical clinics to provide basic medical services for illnesses and injuries such as fever, cough, colds, wounds and cuts, diabetes, and hypertension. Malaysia citizens are charged RM1 for treatment and medication.[10] Non-citizens are charged RM15.[11]

1Malaysia Community WiFi[edit source | edit]

To boost internet penetration in the country, the government launch free Wi-Fi services as part of the 1Malaysia campaign which known as (Kampung Tanpa Wayar - KTW) (Village Without Wire) in 2011 for rural areas resident.[12][13][14] The Wi-Fi services have since been renamed as WiFi Komuniti (WK) - Community WiFi.

1Malaysia email[edit source | edit]

It was announced that the RM50 million contract was awarded to a company called Tricubes Bhd to run the 1Malaysia e-mail project as part of the government's social networking project in which free email accounts would be given to the public to communicate with the government.[15][16] Former Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak announced the “1Malaysia” email project in April last year as part of his administration’s Economic Transformation Program (ETP), saying it would have a gross national income (GNI) impact of RM39 million (US$14.4 million) by 2015.[17]

1Malaysia Development Berhad[edit source | edit]

A government-owned firm 1Malaysia Development Berhad was formed through the renaming sovereign wealth fund called Terengganu Investment Authority (TIA). Through Najib's efforts the company has focus on strategic development projects in the areas of energy, real estate, tourism and agribusiness.

Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia (1Malaysia People's Grocery Stores)[edit source | edit]

In 2011, the 1Malaysia franchise was branched off into a grocery store franchise going by the name Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia (KR1M), with the first store being located at the Kelana Jaya Line Light Rail Transit (LRT) station in Kuala Lumpur. The franchise was aimed at allowing the low income group to obtain cheaper groceries and lighten their burden besides bringing Malaysians closer to the significance of 1Malaysia.[18]

Non-governmental organisations[edit source | edit]

1Malaysia Foundation[edit source | edit]

The 1Malaysia Foundation (Y1M) Foundation was established in 2009 to promote and develop the idea of 1Malaysia. Y1M works to co-ordinate and supplement government and private-sector activities related to 1Malaysia. Chairman of the Y1M Board of Trustees, Dr Chandra Muzaffar said, "Y1M is planning to expand and strengthen the commitment from all Malaysians towards national unity through various activities to increase public awareness and community development."[19]

1Malaysia Youth Fund[edit source | edit]

The 1Malaysia Youth Fund was launched to provide financial support for young people to undertake creative projects that nurture national unity. RM20 million was allocated for the fund under Malaysia's budget passed in 2010. The fund was proposed by the Barisan Nasional Youth Lab.[20]

Former Prime Minister Najib said that 1Malaysia Youth Fund reflected the government's commitment to empowering young people. "The scope and the projects should address three criteria – focus on nurturing unity in Malaysia, have a multiplier effect on the general community, and be led by young people. The objective is to encourage youths to use their imagination to the fullest. We want them to be creative and innovative. Maybe their ability may exceed our expectations and maybe they can do something which has not been thought of by us,” said Najib.[20]

Public response to 1Malaysia[edit source | edit]

Interpretation[edit source | edit]

A year after the concept's introduction, the 4th and current Prime Minister and previous mentor to Najib, Mahathir Mohamad reportedly said that he "still doesn't understand (masih tidak faham)" the concept.[21] Almost two years later, the public similarly, based on an opinion poll in July 2010, were wary of the concept. In particular, the non-Malays surveyed, according to The Malaysian Insider, "were almost split on the Najib administration's national unity agenda with 46 per cent of the respondents believing that the 1Malaysia concept is only a political agenda to win the non-Malay votes," and "only 39 per cent of the non-Malays believed that the concept introduced by Najib after he took over the government was a sincere effort to unite all races in Malaysia".[22]

Criticism of public services[edit source | edit]

The 1Malaysia clinics was criticised for its service especially for their lack of equipments, expired medicines, unqualified assistant medical officers and lack of civil manners by its nurse staff towards patients.[23][24][25][26]

The 1Malaysia Village Without Wire programme (Kampung Tanpa Wayar - KTW) has met with a lot of criticism from the rural areas community with many of them labelling the project as "failed" due to the frequent malfunction and slow Wi-Fi services.[27][28][29]

The 1Malaysia email have been criticised by the public and the opposition Pakatan Rakyat on the waste of money involved and that Tricubes used to be in financial difficulty. After the public outcry Najib had to backtrack stating that this was a private sector initiative and that acceptance of the email accounts was voluntary.[30][31][32] Protests has been organised against the project on Facebook and parodied on a website.[33][34]

The 1Malaysia Development Berhad company has been saddled with controversies such as the purchase of overpriced land from Tadmax Resources, a company linked to the Port Klang Free Zone scandal.[35][36]

Complaints have been received that the groceries sold at KR1M were more expensive compared to those sold in hypermarkets around Malaysia.[37][38] There have been allegations of poor product quality in its product line, namely children's milk formula, fresh milk, condensed milk, sweetened condensed creamer, oyster sauce, fruit jam, canned chicken curry, mango cordial, ghee compounds, peanuts, creamy peanut butter, crunchy peanut butter, crispy peanut butter and tinned sardines in tomato sauce.[39][40][41] KR1M has instructed its suppliers to send their products for periodical laboratory testing.[42]

Bumiputera rights[edit source | edit]

Former Prime Minister Najib's efforts to liberalise government policies and create a more open policy towards all races with 1Malaysia led Malay rights group Perkasa to seek further clarification on the policy, as they feared that his 1Malaysia would undermine Malay or Bumiputera rights in favour of minorities in Malaysia.[43]

Anwar Ibrahim's suspension from parliament[edit source | edit]

On 22 April 2010, Anwar Ibrahim the leader of Malaysia's opposition, was censured by Malaysia's parliament for remarks he made during a press conference in parliament on 30 March 2010. Anwar had claimed to have documents linking 1Malaysia, One Israel, and the public relations firm APCO Worldwide (APCO), but refused to allow access to the documents when challenged.[44] It is against Malaysia's foreign policy to have any dealings with Israel and the appointment of APCO has deeply angered the sensitivities of the Muslims in the country, who wanted Najib to terminate the contract with the company. The Malaysian government and APCO have strongly denied Anwar's allegations. The censure motion passed by the House of Representatives referred Anwar's case to the Rights and Privileges Committee which will recommend a punishment for approval by the full chamber. Such punishment could include being banned from parliament.[45][46][47] Anwar has retaliated by producing the two documents to back up his statements and refute the government's denials.[46][47] It was announced that Anwar was to be suspended from parliament by the Parliamentary Rights and Privileges Committee based solely by a contents of a letter by APCO without him being able to put up a defence for himself.[48][49][50] On 16 December 2010 Anwar and three opposition MPs, Karpal Singh, Azmin Ali and Sivarasa Rasiah were suspended from parliament without any debate being put forward. Anwar has blamed APCO Worldwide for his and his fellow opposition parliamentarian's suspensions.[51][52][53]

Negaraku Malaysia[edit source | edit]

In conjunction with the 60th National Day celebration in 2017, the government then under the Barisan National coalition, led by then prime minister Najib Razak launched a 'Negaraku' initiative to instil a sense of love for the country.[54] It was used alongside the 1Malaysia concept which also became Negaraku 1Malaysia concept and logo.[55] The word 'Negaraku' was also used in greetings by the politicians from that coalition on official occasions such as the National Day parade. After Pakatan Harapan took control of the government in May 2018, both the initiative and the concept were abolished.[56]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. "The 1Malaysia Concept Part 1". Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. "Cabinet agrees to revamp Biro Tata Negara curriculum". The Sun Daily. 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  3. "1Malaysia Concept In Local Drama Series, Bernama, 14 December 2009". Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  4. Joseph Sipalan. "Murugiah: RM38mil spent on 1Malaysia". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  5. All the facts on NKRA, 1Malaysia out this week, Lydia Gomez and , NST, 14 December 2009[permanent dead link]
  6. 6.0 6.1 "People's Satisfaction a KPI Benchmark - Najib". Press Release, Prime Minister's Office. 4 May 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  7. Najib Sets The Pace For Transformation In Administration, by Sophia Ahmad, Bernama, 11 December 2009[permanent dead link]
  8. "KPIs to measure PS performance, PSnews".
  9. "Najib makes Idris Jala minister to run KPIs unit, The Malaysian Insider". Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  10. "Klinik 1Malaysia". Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  11. "Only 1RM treatment charge for common illnesses, The Star, 8 January 2010". Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  12. "Wi-Fi komuniti bantu rakyat dapat akses internet". Bernama (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  13. "MCMC has built over 900 telco towers as of September". Bernama. The Rakyat Post. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  14. "Minister: Malaysia's Broadband Penetration Rate Now Stands At 72.2%". Lowyat. Malaysian Digest. 28 October 2015. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  15. "Tricubes to be delisted on Monday". The Edge Markets. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  16. Neo, Chee Hua (20 April 2011). "1Malaysia Email: Tricubes Berhad Dimiliki Secara Tidak Langsung Adik Najib". Malaysia Today. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  17. Singh, Karamjit (5 July 2012). "1Malaysia e-mail to go on, says Pemandu, Tricubes". Digital News Asia. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  18. The-Star-Newspaper-26-June-2011
  19. "1Malaysia Foundation To Realise 1Malaysia Concept, Bernama, 14 July 2009". 14 July 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  20. 20.0 20.1 1Malaysia Youth Fund a boon for youthful ideas, The Star, 22 January 2011
  21. [1] Mingguan Malaysia. 2 August 2009
  22. Poll Shows Divided Malays Archived 15 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Malaysian Insider. 9 July 2010
  23. Bavani M; Sheila Sri Priya (26 May 2014). "Public shy away from 1Malaysia clinics". The Star. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  24. P. Chandra Sagaran (19 February 2014). "Sick girl claims 1Malaysia clinic dispenses expired medicine". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  25. "Two-year-old toddler denied treatment as his mother's pants was apparently too short". The Rakyat Post. 6 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  26. "Parents fume after baby having asthma attack rejected by clinic in Malaysia as it was near closing time". The Straits Times. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  27. Rintos Mail (18 July 2013). "Penrissen folk complain about frequent disruptions to Kampung Tanpa Wayar initiative". The Star Online. Retrieved 15 April 2016.[permanent dead link]
  28. "Projek Kampung Tanpa Wayar gagal" (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  29. "Penduduk kecewa masalah internet" (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 December 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  30. Letters from readers (26 April 2011). "One e-mail, one bad idea". Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  31. Letters from readers (22 April 2011). "1Malaysia email will fleece us, says DAP". Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  32. "Financially distressed Tricubes gets 'lifeline'". The Star. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  33. Mustafa, Shazwan (20 April 2011). "On Facebook, 24000 spurn 1 Malaysia email". Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  34. Letters from readers (27 April 2011). "Spoof site mocks 1Malaysia e-mail". Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  35. "DAP Questions 1MDB's 'bailout'". Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  36. "1MDB buys Tadmax land for RM317mil - Business News | the Star Online".
  37. "MPs: Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia products not as cheap as advertised | theSundaily". Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  38. "Opposition MP claims prices at KR1M not that cheap". Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  39. Letters from readers (21 November 2011). "Baffling silence on tainted KR1M products". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  40. Letters from readers (11 November 2011). "Poor quality products in 1M'sia shops". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  41. Letters from readers (4 December 2011). "All KR1M products to undergo lab tests". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  42. "Suppliers ordered to send KR1M products for lab tests". Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  43. "Perkasa tells Najib to explain his 1Malaysia or face rejection". Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  44. "Parliament: Anwar claims Apco was in M'sia before 1Malaysia concept was announced, The Star, 30 March 2010". Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  45. Ahmad, Razak (22 April 2010). "Malaysia parliament votes to censure Anwar, Reuters, 22 Apr 2010". Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  46. 46.0 46.1 "".
  47. 47.0 47.1 Hazlan Zakaria & S Pathmawathy. "Anwar produces documents on APCO-Israel-1M'sia link, Malaysiakini". Retrieved 12 January 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. "Suspension likely for Anwar, TheStar". Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  49. "Apco row: Anwar may be suspended with no defence, Free Malaysia Today". Archived from the original on 6 December 2010.
  50. "Malaysia's Anwar says likely to be suspended from parliament, AFP". 3 December 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  51. "Malaysia MPs suspend Anwar Ibrahim over Israel comment". BBC. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  52. "Opposition MPs walk out over Apco case, Sun Daily". Retrieved 12 January 2012.[permanent dead link]
  53. "Umno And Apco Must Explain, Says Anwar". Malaysia Today. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  54. Government launches Negaraku initiative
  55. "1Malaysia Negaraku logo a new symbol of unity". Bernama. The Star. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  56. TTN (16 May 2018). "No More 1Malaysia Slogans and Greetings". The True Net. Retrieved 18 February 2019.

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