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2000 United States Census

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Twenty-second Census
of the United States
← 1990
2010 →
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
Census Logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 2000
Total population281,421,906
Percent changeIncrease 13.2%
Most populous stateCalifornia
Least populous stateWyoming

The United States Census of 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2 percent over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.[1] This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States.[2]

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 2000 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 2000 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

This was the first census in which a state – California – recorded a population of over 30 million, as well as the first in which two states – California and Texas – recorded populations of more than 20 million.

Data availability[edit source | edit]

Microdata from the 2000 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2072.[3]

State rankings[edit source | edit]

Rank State Population as of
1990 Census[4]
Population as of
2000 Census[4]
Change Percent
1  California 29,760,021 33,871,648 Increase 4,111,627 Increase 13.8%
2 Template:Country data Texas 16,986,510 20,851,820 Increase 3,865,510 Increase 22.8%
3 Template:Country data New York 17,990,455 18,976,457 Increase 986,002 Increase 5.5%
4 Template:Country data Florida 12,937,926 15,982,378 Increase 3,044,452 Increase 23.5%
5 Template:Country data Illinois 11,430,602 12,419,293 Increase 988,691 Increase 8.6%
6 Template:Country data Pennsylvania 11,881,643 12,281,054 Increase 399,411 Increase 3.4%
7 Template:Country data Ohio 10,847,115 11,353,140 Increase 506,025 Increase 4.7%
8 Template:Country data Michigan 9,295,297 9,938,444 Increase 643,147 Increase 6.9%
9 Template:Country data New Jersey 7,730,188 8,414,350 Increase 684,162 Increase 8.9%
10  Georgia 6,478,216 8,186,453 Increase 1,708,237 Increase 26.4%
11 Template:Country data North Carolina 6,628,637 8,049,313 Increase 1,420,676 Increase 21.4%
12 Template:Country data Virginia 6,187,358 7,078,515 Increase 891,157 Increase 14.4%
13 Template:Country data Massachusetts 6,016,425 6,349,097 Increase 332,672 Increase 5.5%
14 Template:Country data Indiana 5,544,159 6,080,485 Increase 536,326 Increase 9.7%
15 Template:Country data Washington 4,866,692 5,894,121 Increase 1,027,429 Increase 21.1%
16 Template:Country data Tennessee 4,877,185 5,689,283 Increase 812,098 Increase 16.7%
17 Template:Country data Missouri 5,117,073 5,595,211 Increase 478,138 Increase 9.3%
18 Template:Country data Wisconsin 4,891,769 5,363,675 Increase 471,906 Increase 9.6%
19 Template:Country data Maryland 4,781,468 5,296,486 Increase 515,018 Increase 10.8%
20 Template:Country data Arizona 3,665,228 5,130,632 Increase 1,465,404 Increase 40.0%
21 Template:Country data Minnesota 4,375,099 4,919,479 Increase 544,380 Increase 12.4%
22 Template:Country data Louisiana 4,219,973 4,468,976 Increase 249,003 Increase 5.9%
23 Template:Country data Alabama 4,040,587 4,447,100 Increase 406,513 Increase 10.1%
24 Template:Country data Colorado 3,294,394 4,301,261 Increase 1,006,867 Increase 30.6%
25 Template:Country data Kentucky 3,685,296 4,041,769 Increase 356,473 Increase 9.7%
26 Template:Country data South Carolina 3,486,703 4,012,012 Increase 525,309 Increase 15.1%
27 Template:Country data Oklahoma 3,145,585 3,450,654 Increase 305,069 Increase 9.7%
28 Template:Country data Oregon 2,842,321 3,421,399 Increase 579,078 Increase 20.4%
29 Template:Country data Connecticut 3,287,116 3,405,565 Increase 118,449 Increase 3.6%
30 Template:Country data Iowa 2,776,755 2,926,324 Increase 149,569 Increase 5.4%
31 Template:Country data Mississippi 2,573,216 2,844,658 Increase 271,442 Increase 10.5%
32 Template:Country data Kansas 2,477,574 2,688,418 Increase 210,844 Increase 8.5%
33 Template:Country data Arkansas 2,350,725 2,673,400 Increase 322,675 Increase 13.7%
34 Template:Country data Utah 1,722,850 2,233,169 Increase 510,319 Increase 29.6%
35 Template:Country data Nevada 1,201,833 1,998,257 Increase 796,424 Increase 66.3%
36 Template:Country data New Mexico 1,515,069 1,819,046 Increase 303,977 Increase 20.1%
37 Template:Country data West Virginia 1,793,477 1,808,344 Increase 14,867 Increase 0.8%
38 Template:Country data Nebraska 1,578,385 1,711,263 Increase 132,878 Increase 8.4%
39 Template:Country data Idaho 1,006,749 1,293,953 Increase 287,204 Increase 28.5%
40 Template:Country data Maine 1,227,928 1,274,923 Increase 46,995 Increase 3.8%
41 Template:Country data New Hampshire 1,109,252 1,235,786 Increase 126,534 Increase 11.4%
42 Template:Country data Hawaii 1,108,229 1,211,537 Increase 103,308 Increase 9.3%
43 Template:Country data Rhode Island 1,003,464 1,048,319 Increase 44,855 Increase 4.5%
44 Template:Country data Montana 799,065 902,195 Increase 103,130 Increase 12.9%
45 Template:Country data Delaware 666,168 783,600 Increase 117,432 Increase 17.6%
46 Template:Country data South Dakota 696,004 754,844 Increase 58,840 Increase 8.5%
47 Template:Country data North Dakota 638,800 642,200 Increase 3,400 Increase 0.5%
48 Template:Country data Alaska 550,043 626,932 Increase 76,889 Increase 14.0%
49 Template:Country data Vermont 562,758 608,827 Increase 46,069 Increase 8.2%
Template:Country data Washington, D.C. 606,900 572,059 Decrease -34,841 Decrease -5.7%
50  Wyoming 453,588 493,782 Increase 40,194 Increase 8.9%
   United States 248,709,873 281,421,906 32,712,033 13.2%

City rankings[edit source | edit]

Top 100[edit source | edit]

Rank City State Population[5] Region
1 New York NY 8,008,278 Northeast
2 Los Angeles CA 3,694,820 West
3 Chicago IL 2,896,016 Midwest
4 Houston TX 1,953,631 South
5 Philadelphia PA 1,517,550 Northeast
6 Phoenix AZ 1,321,045 West
7 San Diego CA 1,223,400 West
8 Dallas TX 1,188,580 South
9 San Antonio TX 1,144,646 South
10 Detroit MI 951,270 Midwest
11 San Jose CA 894,943 West
12 Indianapolis IN 791,926 Midwest
13 San Francisco CA 776,733 West
14 Jacksonville FL 735,617 South
15 Columbus OH 711,470 Midwest
16 Austin TX 656,562 South
17 Baltimore MD 651,154 South
18 Memphis TN 650,100 South
19 Milwaukee WI 596,974 Midwest
20 Boston MA 589,141 Northeast
21 Washington DC 572,059 South
22 Nashville-Davidson TN 569,891 South
23 El Paso TX 563,662 South
24 Seattle WA 563,374 West
25 Denver CO 554,636 West
26 Charlotte NC 540,828 South
27 Fort Worth TX 534,694 South
28 Portland OR 529,121 West
29 Oklahoma City OK 506,132 South
30 Tucson AZ 486,699 West
31 New Orleans LA 484,674 South
32 Las Vegas NV 478,434 West
33 Cleveland OH 478,403 Midwest
34 Long Beach CA 461,522 West
35 Albuquerque NM 448,607 West
36 Kansas City MO 441,545 Midwest
37 Fresno CA 427,652 West
38 Virginia Beach VA 425,257 South
39 San Juan Puerto Rico 421,958
40 Atlanta GA 416,474 South
41 Sacramento CA 407,018 West
42 Oakland CA 399,484 West
43 Mesa AZ 396,375 West
44 Tulsa OK 393,049 South
45 Omaha NE 390,007 Midwest
46 Minneapolis MN 382,618 Midwest
47 Honolulu HI 371,657 West
48 Miami FL 362,470 South
49 Colorado Springs CO 360,890 West
50 St. Louis MO 348,189 Midwest
51 Wichita KS 344,284 Midwest
52 Santa Ana CA 337,977 West
53 Pittsburgh PA 334,563 Northeast
54 Arlington TX 332,969 South
55 Cincinnati OH 331,285 Midwest
56 Anaheim CA 328,014 West
57 Toledo OH 313,619 Midwest
58 Tampa FL 303,447 South
59 Buffalo NY 292,648 Northeast
60 St. Paul MN 287,151 Midwest
61 Corpus Christi TX 277,454 South
62 Aurora CO 276,393 West
63 Raleigh NC 276,093 South
64 Newark NJ 273,546 Northeast
65 Lexington-Fayette KY 260,512 South
66 Anchorage AK 260,283 West
67 Louisville KY 256,231 South
68 Riverside CA 255,166 West
69 St. Petersburg FL 248,232 South
70 Bakersfield CA 247,057 West
71 Stockton CA 243,771 West
72 Birmingham AL 242,820 South
73 Jersey City NJ 240,055 Northeast
74 Norfolk VA 234,403 South
75 Baton Rouge LA 227,818 South
76 Hialeah FL 226,419 South
77 Lincoln NE 225,581 Midwest
78 Greensboro NC 223,891 South
79 Plano TX 222,030 South
80 Rochester NY 219,773 Northeast
81 Glendale AZ 218,812 West
82 Akron OH 217,074 Midwest
83 Garland TX 215,768 South
84 Madison WI 208,054 Midwest
85 Fort Wayne IN 205,727 Midwest
86 Bayamon Puerto Rico 203,499
87 Fremont CA 203,413 West
88 Scottsdale AZ 202,705 West
89 Montgomery AL 201,568 South
90 Shreveport LA 200,145 South
91 Augusta-Richmond County GA 199,775 South
92 Lubbock TX 199,564 South
93 Chesapeake VA 199,184 South
94 Mobile AL 198,915 South
95 Des Moines IA 198,682 Midwest
96 Grand Rapids MI 197,800 Midwest
97 Richmond VA 197,790 South
98 Yonkers NY 196,086 Northeast
99 Spokane WA 195,629 West
100 Glendale CA 194,973 West

Population profile[edit source | edit]

The U.S. resident population includes the total number of people in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Bureau also enumerated the residents of the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico; its population was 3,808,610, an 8.1% increase over the number from a decade earlier.

In an introduction to a more detailed population profile (see references below), the Census Bureau highlighted the following facts about U.S. population dynamics:

  • 75% of respondents said they were White or Caucasian and no other race;
  • Hispanics accounted for 12.5% of the U.S. population, up from 9% in 1990;
  • 12.4% (34.5 million Americans) were of German descent;
  • 12.3% were of Black or African American descent;
  • 3.6% of respondents were Asian;
  • 2.4% (6.8 million Americans)[6] of respondents were multiracial (2 or more races). The 2000 Census was the first time survey options for multiracial Americans were provided.
  • Between 1990 and 2000, the population aged 45 to 54 grew by 49% and those aged 85 and older grew 38%;
  • Women outnumbered men two to one among those aged 85 and older;
  • Almost one in five adults had some type of disability in 1997 and the likelihood of having a disability increased with age;
  • Families (as opposed to men or women living alone) still dominated American households, but less so than they did thirty years ago;
  • Since 1993, both families and non-families have seen median household incomes rise, with "households headed by a woman without a spouse present" growing the fastest;
  • People in married-couple families had the lowest poverty rates;
  • The poor of any age were more likely than others to lack health insurance coverage;
  • The number of elementary and high school students in 2000 fell just short of the all-time high of 49 million reached in 1970;
  • Improvements in educational attainment cross racial and ethnic lines; and
  • The majority (51%) of U.S. households had access to computers; 42% had Internet access.[7]

Changes in population[edit source | edit]

Regionally, the South and West experienced the bulk of the nation's population increase: 14,790,890 and 10,411,850, respectively. This meant that the mean center of U.S. population moved to Phelps County, Missouri. The Northeast grew by 2,785,149; the Midwest by 4,724,144.



(maps not to scale)

Reapportionment[edit source | edit]

2000 census reapportionment.svg

The results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned. Congress defines the formula, in accordance with Title 2 of the U.S. Code, to reapportion among the states the 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives. The apportionment population consists of the resident population of the fifty states, plus the overseas military and federal civilian employees and their dependents living with them who could be allocated to a state. Each member of the House represents a population of about 647,000. The populations of the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico are excluded from the apportionment population because they do not have voting seats in the U. S. House of Representatives.

Since the first census in 1790, the decennial count has been the basis for the United States representative form of government. Article I, Section II specifies that "The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative." In 1790, each member of the House represented about 34,000 residents. Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, and in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435. Today, each member represents about 20 times as many constituents.

Adjustment controversy[edit source | edit]

In the years leading up to the 2000 census, there was substantial controversy over whether the Bureau should adjust census figures based on a follow-up survey, called the post-enumeration survey, of a sample of blocks. (In 1999, the Supreme Court ruled 5–4 that the Constitution prohibits the use of such figures for apportionment purposes, but it may be permissible for other purposes where feasible.) The controversy was partly technical, but also partly political, since based on data from the 1990 census both parties believed that adjustment would likely have the effect, after redistricting, of slightly increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would also give Utah an additional, probably Republican, representative to Congress.[8][9]

Following the census, discrepancies between the adjusted census figures and demographic estimates of population change could not be resolved in time to meet legal deadlines for the provision of redistricting data, and the Census Bureau therefore recommended that the unadjusted results be used for this purpose.[10] This recommendation was followed by the Secretary of Commerce (the official in charge of making the determination).

Utah controversy[edit source | edit]

After the census was tabulated, Utah challenged the results in two different ways. Utah was extremely close to gaining a fourth congressional seat, falling 857 people short, which in turn was allocated to North Carolina. The margin was later shortened to 80 people, after the federal government discovered that it overcounted the population of North Carolina by 2,673 residents.[11] The Census Bureau counted members of the military and other federal civilian employees serving abroad as residents of their home state but did not count other people living outside the United States. Utah claimed that people traveling abroad as religious missionaries should be counted as residents and that the failure to do so imposed a burden on Mormon religious practice. Almost half of all Mormon missionaries, more than 11,000 people, were from Utah; only 102 came from North Carolina. If this policy were changed, then Utah would have received an additional seat instead of North Carolina. On November 26, 2002, the Supreme Court affirmed the lower court ruling that rejected Utah's efforts to have Mormon missionaries counted.[12]

The state of Utah then filed another lawsuit alleging that the statistical methods used in computing the state populations were improper and cost Utah the seat. The Bureau uses a method called imputation to assign a number of residents to addresses where residents cannot be reached after multiple efforts. While nationwide the imputation method added 0.4% to the population, the rate in Utah was 0.2%. The state challenged that the use of imputation violates the Census Act of 1957 and that it also fails the Constitution's requirement in Article I, Section 2 that an "actual enumeration" be used for apportionment.[13] This case, Utah v. Evans, made it to the Supreme Court, but Utah was again defeated.[14]

Gay and lesbian controversy[edit source | edit]

Census 2000 Long Form Questionnaire showing the Person 2 section including questions 2 and 3 which allow data to be compiled regarding same-sex partners

The census forms did not include any questions regarding sexual orientation, making it impossible to compile data comparing heterosexual and homosexual populations. However, two questions were asked that allowed same-sex partnerships to be counted. The questionnaires asked the sex of each person in a household and they asked what the relationship was between each of the members of the household. Respondents could check "Husband/wife" or "unmarried partner" or a number of other relationships.[15][16] Responses were tabulated and the Census Bureau reported that there were more than 658,000 same-sex couples heading households in the United States. However, only about 25% of gay men and 40% of lesbians are in shared-household partnerships at any one time, according to non-Census surveys.[17] For every same-sex couple tallied in the census, there could be three to six more homosexual un-partnered individuals who would not be counted as gay. The census reported that same-sex male couples numbered 336,001 and female same-sex couples numbered 329,522.[18] Extrapolating from those figures and the surveyed partnering habits of homosexuals, as many as 4.3 million homosexual adults could have been living in the U.S. in 2000. The exact number cannot be known because the Census did not count them specifically. Bisexual and transgender populations were not counted, either, because there were no questions regarding this information. Also unavailable is the number of additional same-sex couples living under the same roof as the first, though this applies to additional heterosexual couples as well. The lack of accurate numbers makes it difficult for lawmakers who are considering legislation on hate crimes or social services for gay families with children.[19] It also makes for less accuracy when predicting the fertility of a population.[20]

Another issue that concerned gay rights advocates involved the automatic changing of data during the tabulation process. This automatic software data compiling method, called allocation, was designed to counteract mistakes and discrepancies in returned questionnaires. Forms that were filled out by two same-sex persons who checked the "Husband/wife" relationship box were treated as a discrepancy. The Census Bureau explained that same-sex "Husband/wife" data samples were changed to "unmarried partner" by computer processing methods in 99% of the cases. In the remaining 1%, computer systems used one of two possibilities: a) one of the two listed sexes was changed, making the partnership appear heterosexual, or b) if the two partners were more than 15 years apart in age, they might have been reassigned into a familial parent/child relationship.[21] The process of automatic reassignment of same-sex marriage data was initiated so that the Census Bureau would not contravene the Defense of Marriage Act passed in 1996. The Act states:

In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or of any ruling, regulation or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word 'spouse' refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or wife.[21]

With allocation moving married same-sex couples to the unmarried partner category, social scientists lost information that could have been extracted relating to the social stability of a same-gender couple who identify themselves as married.[20]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  2. " Introduction to Census 2000 Data Products" (PDF). Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  3. PIO, US Census Bureau, Census History Staff. "The "72-Year Rule" – History – U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Resident Population of the 50 States, and the District of Columbia April 1, 2000 (Census 2000) and April 1, 1990 (1990 Census)". United States Census Bureau. December 28, 2000. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
  5. "Ranking Tables for Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More", Census 2000, U.S. Census Bureau, 2001
  6. Jayson, Sharon. "'Colorblind' Generation Doesn't Blink at interracial Relationships." USA Today. February 7, 2006: n.p. SIRS Researcher. Web. October 25, 2010.
  7. Newburger, Eric (September 2001). "Home Computers and Internet Use in the United States: August 2000" (PDF). Current Population Reports. U.S. Census Bureau: 1–2. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  8. Anderson, Margo; Fienberg, Stephen E. (2000). "Partisan Politics at Work:Sampling and the 2000 Census". PS: Political Science and Politics. American Political Science Association. 33 (4): 795–799. doi:10.1017/S1049096500062016. JSTOR 420917.
  9. [1] Archived January 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Census 2000 ESCAP". Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  11. "Census Blooper Costly for Utah; Error May Have Resulted in Loss of House Seat". The Salt Lake Tribune. October 1, 2003. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2009.
  12. Greenhouse, Linda. "Justices Deal Utah a Setback In Its Bid to Gain a House Seat", The New York Times, November 27, 2001. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  13. Greenhouse, Linda. "Supreme Court Roundup; Justices to Hear Utah's Challenge to Procedure in 2000 Census", The New York Times, January 23, 2002. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  14. Greenhouse, Linda. "The Supreme Court: Right to Privacy; Supreme Court Finds Law On Educational Privacy Isn't Meant for Individuals", The New York Times, June 21, 2002. Accessed July 16, 2008.
  15. "Census 2000 Long Form Questionnaire" (PDF). Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  16. "Census 2000 Short Form Questionnaire" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  17. "Gay and Lesbian Demographics". Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  18. "US Census unmarried couple data listed by state". Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  19. Ly, Phuong (March 12, 2000). "The Washington Post, March 12, 2000. Be Counted In Census, Groups Urge Gay Live-Ins". Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples". January 7, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Technical Note on Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Data From the 1990 and 2000 Censuses". January 7, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2011.


Further reading[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]

United States Census Bureau[edit source | edit]

Other 2000 census websites[edit source | edit]

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