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2019–2020 Chilean protests

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2019-2020 Chilean protests
Part of 2019 Latin American protests and the Latin American Spring
Marcha Mas Grande De Chile 2019 Plaza Baquedano Drone.jpg
Protestas en Chile 20191025 56.jpg
Chilean Protests 2019 Puerto Montt 12.jpg
Estado de Emergencia.jpg
Protestas en Santiago.jpg
Protests in Plaza Baquedano, downtown Santiago
Date14 October 2019 – present[1]
(1 year, 7 days)
Location
Caused by
  • Rise in public transport fares[2][3]
  • Rising cost of living
  • Income inequality
  • Privatisation
  • Political corruption
  • Neo-liberal system
Goals
MethodsProtests, fare evasion, civil disobedience, rioting
StatusOngoing
Parties to the civil conflict

Flag of the 2019 Chilean protests.svg Protesters

Lead figures
* Sebastián Piñera (President of Chile)
  • Andrés Chadwick (Former Interior and Public Security Minister)
  • Javier Iturriaga (Chief of the Joint National Defense)
Number
Over 3.7 million protesters[6][7]
Casualties
Death(s)36 (as of February 2020)[8]
Injuries11,564
Detained28,000 (as of February 2020)[8]

Civil protests are taking place throughout Chile in response to a raise in the Santiago Metro's subway fare, the increased cost of living, privatisation and inequality prevalent in the country.[9][10][11][12][13]

The protests began in Chile's capital, Santiago, as a coordinated fare evasion campaign by secondary school students which led to spontaneous takeovers of the city's main train stations and open confrontations with the Carabineros de Chile (the national police force). On 18 October, the situation escalated as a group of people began vandalizing city's infrastructure; seizing, vandalizing, and burning down many stations of the Santiago Metro network and disabling them with extensive infrastructure damage, and for a time causing the cessation of the network in its entirety. 81 stations have sustained major damage, including 17 burned down.[14][15] On the same day, President of Chile Sebastián Piñera announced a state of emergency, authorizing the deployment of Chilean Army forces across the main regions to enforce order and prevent the destruction of public property, and invoked before the courts the Ley de Seguridad del Estado ("State Security Law") against dozens of detainees. A curfew was declared on 19 October in the Greater Santiago area.[16][17]

In the following days, protests and riots have expanded to other Chilean cities, including Concepción, San Antonio, and Valparaíso.[18] The state of emergency was extended to the Concepción Province, all Valparaíso Region (except Easter Island and Juan Fernández Archipelago) and the cities of Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Iquique, La Serena, Rancagua, Valdivia, Osorno, and Puerto Montt. The protests have been considered the "worst civil unrest" having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship due to the scale of damage to public infrastructure, the number of protesters, and the measures taken by the government.[19]

On 25 October, over a million people took to the streets throughout Chile to protest against President Piñera, demanding his resignation.[20][21] As of December 28, 29 people have died,[22] nearly 2,500 have been injured, and 2,840 have been arrested.[21][23] Human rights organisations have received several reports of violations conducted against protesters by security forces, including torture, sexual abuse and sexual assault.[24][25][26]

On 28 October, President Piñera changed eight ministries of his cabinet in response to the unrest, dismissing his Interior Minister Andrés Chadwick.[27][28] On November 15, the National Congress signed an agreement to call a national referendum in April 2020 regarding the creation of a new constitution. The referendum was later rescheduled from April 26 to October 25, 2020.

Core issues[edit source | edit]

Transport fares[edit source | edit]

Fee, adjusted by inflation, of public transportation in Santiago, between 31 January 2012 and 6 October 2019, before the last increase was revoked

The price of public transport in Greater Santiago is determined by the Panel of Public Transport Experts (Spanish: Panel de Expertos del Transporte Público), which uses an automatic calculation formula to adjust fares on a monthly basis. The Ministry of Transportation and Telecommunications is advised by the panel and must be notified of any price changes.[29]

On 1 October 2019, the Panel determined the quarterly adjustment of fares for the public transport system of the Province of Santiago and the communes of San Bernardo and Puente Alto. They decided that a fare hike of 10 Chilean pesos for buses and 30 pesos for the Santiago Metro and Metrotrén at peak hours (a rise of about 4%), as well as a fare decrease of 30 pesos at off-peak hours, was necessary.[30] The increase was justified by the panel due to increase of the rate index, which is subject to variations in the value of fuel, the value of the US dollar, the value of the euro, the cost of labor, and the consumer price index among other variables, such that the costs to the subway have risen.[31] The fare change was scheduled to take effect from 6 October.[32]

Some specialists, such as former Minister Paola Tapia, have indicated that there are other factors that explain the rise. Among these factors would be the purchase without tender of a new fleet of electric buses for the Metropolitan Mobility Network and the suspension of the new tender for bus services, both decisions made by the administration of Minister Gloria Hutt.[33]

In addition, there is criticism that rail transit fares in Santiago are the second highest in Latin America (only surpassed by São Paulo).[34] In relative terms, the average monthly cost per person for the city's public transport is equivalent to 13.8% of the minimum wage, well above other cities such as Buenos Aires, Mexico City or Lima, where it does not exceed 10%.[35]

Inequality and cost of living[edit source | edit]

According to Jose Miguel Ahumada, a political economist and associate professor at the University of Chile, the country is "one of the most unequal countries in Latin America".[10] As described by The Washington Post, while the last three decades of neoliberal policies made Chile "one of South America’s wealthiest countries, with inflation under control and easy access to credit", they also "created stark economic disparities and strapped many Chileans into debt".[36] The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) states, that 1% of the population in Chile controls 26.5% of the country's wealth, while 50% of low-income households access 2.1%. Additionally, according to National Statistics Institute of Chile, while the minimum wage in Chile is 301,000 pesos, half of the workers in that country receive a salary equal to or less than 400,000 pesos.[37]

Protesters interviewed by Reuters said they were struggling to make ends meet because of the high costs of part-privatized education and health systems, rents and utilities, and a privatized pension system has been widely rejected by Chileans because of its low and often delayed payouts.[12]

October 2019 protests[edit source | edit]

October protests
One of the 16 public transport buses that were burned on the night of 18 October
Carabineros Special Forces watching protests on 19 October

The protests began on Monday, 7 October, as secondary-school students began an orchestrated campaign of fare dodging on the Santiago Metro. In response, the Metro authority began controlling access to several stations.[38] Under the slogan ¡Evade! ("evade"), the fare-dodging campaign continued and grew over the remainder of that week and into the next. On Monday, 14 October, several stations on Line 5 were closed in the afternoon after violent incidents were reported.[39] On 15 October, a major clash between students and police occurred at Santa Ana station and four arrests were made;[40] in the afternoon, a group of protesters kicked down a metal gate at Plaza de Armas station in downtown Santiago, and stations on Lines 1, 3 and 5 were closed to passengers as security was stepped up.[41] Confrontations continued and expanded over the following days, with turnstiles and ticket machines being destroyed at San Joaquín station on 17 October and four stations closed in the evening.[42] At that time, 133 arrests had been made and damage to Metro infrastructure was estimated at up to 500 million pesos (US$700,000).[43]

On Friday, 18 October, the situation escalated as protests unfolded in downtown Santiago. Barricades were built, to which the police responded with water cannon and tear gas. The entire Metro system was closed after attacks were reported at nearly all its 164 stations, forcing many passengers to walk home.[43] The headquarters building of electricity company Enel Generación Chile was damaged in a fire which affected its emergency exit stairwell.[44]

A major event that galvanized the day's movement was related to Sebastián Piñera himself. At approximately 21:00 hours on 18 October, while riots and open battles swept the capital, the President was away from La Moneda Palace, busy attending the birthday of one of his grandchildren. The celebration took place at a restaurant named Romaría, an expensive pizza parlour in the northern district of Vitacura, one of Santiago's wealthiest.[45] An unidentified customer who happened to be inside took photographs and posted them anonymously on Twitter, showing a relaxed Piñera eating inside and his private escort convoy sitting outside the building.[45][46] Piñera later addressed the nation and announced a 15-day state of emergency in the capital, allowing the armed forces to patrol the city alongside the Carabineros, Chile's militarized national police force.[43][47]

Demonstration and barricades in downtown Concepción on 21 October

The violence continued on 19 October and the Metro remained closed to passengers. Shops were looted, buses were set alight and clashes occurred between demonstrators and the security forces.[48] A curfew was imposed between 22:00 and 07:00 hours. As rioting spread to other parts of the country, states of emergency were declared in the Valparaíso Region and Concepción Province.[47] In an address to the nation in the evening, President Piñera announced the cancellation of the fare increase and the establishment of a dialogue panel, with representatives from across society, to discuss the underlying causes behind the unrest.[49][50]

Protesters in Plaza Baquedano on 22 October

On 20 October, many supermarkets, shopping malls and cinemas remained closed[51] as the protests continued.[49] Curfews were imposed for that night in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, and the regions of Valparaíso, Biobío (including the regional capital, Concepción), and Coquimbo;[52] as the curfew began in Santiago, many protesters remained on the street.[53]

Local authorities also announced the closure of schools on 21 October (and some also on 22 October) in 43 of the 52 communes of the Metropolitan Region and across the province of Concepción.[54][55]

President Piñera again addressed the nation on the evening of 20 October. In his remarks, he said the country was "at war with a powerful and implacable enemy" and announced that the state of emergency, already in effect in the Metropolitan Region and the regions of Valparaíso, Biobío, Coquimbo and O’Higgins, would be extended to the regions of Antofagasta, Maule, Los Ríos, and Magallanes.[56] Some opposition politicians described his rhetoric as "irresponsible", while a Latin America editor for BBC News Online expressed concern about the impact his words would have on the protesters and on the chances for meaningful dialogue.[57] Hours shortly after the President's speech, chief of national defense Javier Iturriaga del Campo spoke against this declaration, asserting that he was "content" and "not at war with anyone".[58]

Protesters in Plaza Baquedano on 8 November

Some incidents of unrest were reported on 21 October in Santiago, Concepción, and other cities. The Santiago Metro remained closed, except for a portion of Line 1,[59] as did all the nation's universities and institutes of higher education.[60] The intendant of the Metropolitan Region announced that schools would remain closed on 22 October in 48 of the region's communes.[61] Michelle Bachelet, a former President of Chile now serving as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, issued a call for open, sincere and immediate dialogue and warned that "the use of inflammatory rhetoric will only serve to further aggravate the situation".[62]

On 25 October, over a million people took to the streets in Santiago, and thousands more throughout Chile, to protest against President Piñera, demanding his resignation.[20][21]

As of 26 October, 19 people have died, nearly 2,500 have been injured, and 2,840 have been arrested.[21][23]

On 27 October, President Piñera requested all of his cabinet ministers to resign;[63] however, he accepted 8 resignations, including the Interior Minister Andrés Chadwick.[27][28]

According to Bloomberg, the protests are the worst civil unrest having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship due to of the scale of damage to public infrastructure, the number of protesters, and the measures taken by the government.[19][64]

2020 protests[edit source | edit]

On 6 January 2020, university entrance exams to be taken by 300,000 students around Chile were disrupted by protests over inequality and elitism, with some students blocking access to test sites and burning exam papers.[65]

At the end of January 2020, the social rebellion (which had reduced somewhat during the Chilean summer holidays) resumed again with large demonstrations. The protests were catalysed by incidents such as the death of Jorge Mora, struck by a Carabinero vehicle after a football match. [66][67] As of February 2020, an estimated 36 protestors had died.[8] The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) denounced the violence of the police and announced that between October 18 and December 6 2019, 28,000 people had been imprisoned. The Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos (INDH) reported at the end of January 2020 that 427 persons had received eye injuries at the hands of the police.[8] The INDH also recorded 697 attacks on lone civilians by state actors between the start of the protests in October and 31 January. Of these, 123 attacks were by Carabineros.[8]

Incidents and casualties[edit source | edit]

  State of emergency and curfew
  State of emergency

During the protests 36 people have died as of February 2020, and thousands have been injured and arrested.[8] Amnesty International has received hundreds of complaints about serious human rights violations that range from excessive use of force to torture, illegal raids and arbitrary detention.[24] Similar allegations have been received by Chile's National Institute for Human Rights, which also included reports of sexual violence.[25][26]

Deaths[edit source | edit]

  • 19 October
    • Two women died and one man was seriously injured in a fire inside a supermarket in the southern Santiago suburb of San Bernardo.[68]
    • A Polish teacher was accidentally shot and killed by his father-in-law, who was trying to stop looters in a nearby supermarket.[69]
  • 20 October
    • A 38-year-old man died in a supermarket fire on Matucana Avenue, located along the border of Santiago and Quinta Normal.[70]
    • Five people died in a textile factory fire in Renca; three of them were minors.[71][72][73]
    • A 21-year-old protester was shot dead by soldiers in La Serena; another was seriously injured.[74]
    • A 23-year-old protester was shot dead inside a La Polar store by soldiers in Coquimbo.[75]
    • Additionally, several allegations claimed that the armed forces had disproportionately shot protesters.[76]
  • 21 October
    • Two people, one of them 74 years old, died in a supermarket fire in La Pintana.[77]
    • A 25-year-old man was shot and killed in Curicó, and the investigation indicated, due to the bullet found, that he had been shot by a business-owner's gun [78][79], and another three people were seriously injured. (The city is not under a state of emergency.)[80]
    • In the commune of Talcahuano, in the city of Concepción during a period of looting, military forces ran over and killed a 23-year-old man.[81]
    • A man was fatally electrocuted during looting in a Santa Isabel supermarket in a suburb of Santiago.[82]
    • A 39-year-old man died in a hospital from injuries sustained in a beating carried out by Carabineros in Maipú, western Santiago. (His name was initially not included on the official list of dead; it was added on 23 October.)[83][84]
  • 22 October
    • A man was killed after being shot in the head by a tenant who feared looting.[85]
    • A driver rammed his car into protesters killing two people, including a 4 year old toddler, and wounding 17; this event increased the death toll to 17.[86][87]
  • 27 December
    • Following the last protest march of the year, a demonstrator called Mauricio Fredes died after falling into a construction hole, whilst being pursued by police.[88]
  • 28 January
    • As football fans left a stadium in Santiago after a match, a Carabinero vehicle struck and killed Jorge Mora.[8]
  • 31 January
    • A man who had been shot in the head at a protest outside a police station in Santiago died of his wounds in hospital.[67]
    • The body of a man thought to have died from carbon monoxide poisoning was recovered from a supermarket which had been looted and burnt.[67]

Excessive use of force[edit source | edit]

According to the National Institute of Human Rights (INDH), the use of rubber pellets by security forces has left at least 964 injured, including 222 with eye problems.[89] According to the Chilean Ophthalmology Society, this is the highest number of injuries of this type registered during protests or in conflict zones in the world.[90] Bandaged eyes had become so common that they become a symbol for protesters.[91][92][93]

Human rights organisations have received several reports of violations conducted against protesters, including torture, sexual abuse and rape.[24][25][26][28] Amnesty International's investigations "allege that state security forces, including both the police and army, deliberately use excessive force against protesters."[94] Amnesty International went on to state that "[the military and police] are using unnecessary and excessive force with the intention of injuring and punishing protesters."[95] According to Erika Guevara-Rosas, the America's director for the human rights group, "the intention of the Chilean security forces is clear: to injure demonstrators in order to discourage protest."[96] Human Rights Watch stated that "indiscriminate and improper use of riot guns and shotguns, abuse of detainees in custody, and poor internal accountability systems gave rise to serious violations of the rights of many Chileans".[97]

Other incidents[edit source | edit]

  • 18 October
    • During riots at the historical Estación Central station, a young woman was gravely injured in the legs by gunfire from Carabineros riot police. The woman was aided by nearby protesters and passers-by as she suffered extensive blood loss before being extracted by emergency services.[98]
  • 19 October
    • A doctor assaulted by a police officer during a protest indicated that the police officer had signs of being under the influence of drugs.[99]
  • 20 October
    • President Piñera extended the state of emergency in the north and south of the country and said "we are at war against a powerful enemy that doesn't respect anything or anyone".[100]
  • 8 November
    • The Pedro Valdivia University was set ablaze. The Roman Catholic church Veronica de Lastarria near the main site of the demonstration at Baquedano Square (commonly referred to as Italia Square) has been looted. A statue of Jesus and furniture from the interior of the church were taken out on the street and burned down.[101]
  • 27 December
    • In the night, the Cine Arte Alameda, an arts center, was burnt down. Initial reports suggested this was due to the indiscriminate firing of tear gas canisters by Carabineros into the building.[8][88] An investigation by the Criminal Investigation Brigade (Brigada de Investigación Criminal) is reported to have concluded that no explanation for the fire could be ruled out.[102]
  • 18 January
  • 29 January
    • At a protest following the death of Jorge Mora, a group of Carabineros beat up a young man called Matías Soto. The entire attack was recorded by a security camera. The INDH announced it would sue the Carabineros for torture.[8]
  • 7 February
    • The Violeta Parra Museum was arson attacked, with eyewitnesses recording that Carabineros shot at least 6 tear gas canisters into the building.[8] The chief of the Santiago Fire Department said the causes were not yet established.[103]
  • 28 February
    • The Violeta Parra Museum was again arson attacked. The cause was not ascertained.[104]

Government response[edit source | edit]

In late November, security forces announced the suspension of the use of rubber pellets as a crowd control method in the protests.[89]

Reactions[edit source | edit]

International reactions[edit source | edit]

NGOs[edit source | edit]

Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International both expressed concern over the government's response to the protests, citing "excessive use of force" by Chile's Carabineros, as well as "possible arbitrary detentions of demonstrators".[105]

Solidarity protests[edit source | edit]

In New Zealand's largest city Auckland, hundreds of protesters staged a solidarity march on 27 October 2019.[106]

Others[edit source | edit]

Polish party Lewica Razem issued official statement strongly supporting protests.[107]

References[edit source | edit]

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  22. "Death toll rises to 29 in Chile protests Archived 29 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, December 28, 2019.
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  54. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  55. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  56. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  57. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  58. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  59. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  60. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  61. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  62. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  63. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  64. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  65. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  66. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  68. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  69. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  70. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  71. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  72. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  73. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  74. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  75. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  76. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  77. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  78. Template:Cita web
  79. Fiscalía retirará cargos por homicidio a militar detenido por muerte de José Miguel Uribe durante manifestaciones en Curicó Archived 11 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. El Mostrador, 10 de diciembre de 2019. Consultado el 11 de diciembre de 2019.
  80. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  81. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  82. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  83. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  84. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  85. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  86. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  87. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  88. 88.0 88.1 Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  89. 89.0 89.1 Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  90. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  91. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  92. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  93. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  94. Beaten and blinded, Chile's protesters face "policy of punishment," says Amnesty International Archived 23 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, CNN
  95. Chile: Deliberate policy to injure protesters points to responsibility of those in command Archived 23 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Amnesty International
  96. Amnesty International: Chile using violence as a deterrent Archived 26 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News
  97. HRW calls for urgent police reform in Chile to address abuses Archived 30 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine Al Jazeera
  98. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  99. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  100. Chile's Pinera extends state of emergency, says 'we are at war' Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine Presidente Piñera: "Estamos en guerra contra un enemigo poderoso que no respeta a nada ni a nadie" Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  101. Chile: Protesters burn university, loot church. In: DW.com, 9. 11. 2019. Access date: 13 November 2019. Available online: https://www.dw.com/en/chile-protesters-burn-university-loot-church/a-51177461 Archived 13 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  102. https://www.eldesconcierto.cl/2019/12/31/pdi-afirma-que-no-se-puede-descartar-ninguna-tesis-por-incendio-de-cine-arte-alameda1/
  103. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  104. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  105. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  106. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  107. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).

Template:Ongoing protests