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2020 Brazilian municipal elections

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2020 Brazilian municipal elections

← 2016 15 November 2020 (first round)
29 November 2020 (second round, if necessary)
2024 →

Mayors and councillors of all the 5,568 municipalities of Brazil
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Baleia Rossi (MDB - SP) (cropped).jpg Bruno Araújo.jpg Alfredo cotait.jpg
Leader Baleia Rossi [pt] Bruno Araújo Alfredo Cotait Neto [pt]
Party Brazilian Democratic Movement Party Brazilian Social Democracy Party Social Democratic Party (Brazil, 2011)
Last election 1,037 803 541

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Foto oficial de Ciro Nogueira.jpg Portrait placeholder.svg Lupi.png
Leader Ciro Nogueira Carlos Siqueira Carlos Lupi
Party PP PSB PDT
Last election 495 415 336

The 2020 Brazilian municipal elections will take place on 15 and 29 November 2020 (for cities with more than 200,000 voters, where the second round is available).[1] Electors chose Mayors, Vice-Mayors and City Councillors of all 5,568 cities of the country. The partisan conventions will take place between 20 July and 5 August. These will be the first elections since Bolsonaro's election as President.

Electoral calendar[edit source | edit]

The Superior Electoral Court defined on 17 December 2019 the Electoral Calendar for 2020 Brazilian municipal election. According to the calendar, the first round should take place on October 4, and the second round, on October 25, from 8 am to 5 pm in both cases. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, these dates were moved forward to 15 November and 29 November, respectively. [2] [3]

2020 Electoral Calendar
Date Event
1 January Entities or companies conducting polls related to elections or possible candidates are required to register information in the Electoral Polling Registration System up to 5 days before disclosure
1 January Free distribution of goods, values or benefits by the public administration is prohibited, except in cases of public calamity, state of emergency or social programs authorized by law and already under budget execution in the previous year
1 April TSE starts to broadcast institutional advertisements on radio and TV to encourage female, youth and black community participation in politics
4 April Limit for political parties interested in running for election to have the registrations approved by the TSE
15 May Pre-candidates will be able to make prior fundraising in crowdfunding
4 July It is forbidden to hire artistic shows paid for with public funds when conducting inaugurations
31 August Conventions are allowed to choose coalitions and candidates for Mayor, Vice-Mayor and City Councilor
31 August Last day for the Electoral Justice to disclose the spending limits for each position in dispute
16 September Last day for conventions for choosing coalitions and candidates for Mayor, Vice Mayor and Councilor
26 September Last day for parties and coalitions to submit an application for registration of candidates to the Electoral Court
26 September Date from which electoral propaganda will be allowed, including on the internet
31 October Date from which no candidate may be arrested or detained, except in flagrante delicto
5 November Last day for the voter to request a duplicate of the ticket within the electoral domicile
10 November Date from which no voter can be arrested or detained, except in flagrante delicto or by virtue of a condemnatory criminal sentence for an unspeakable crime
12 November Last day to broadcast free electoral propaganda on radio and TV for the first round
12 November Last day for radio and TV debates for the first round
15 November First Round
27 November Last day to broadcast free electoral propaganda on radio and TV for the second round
27 November Last day for radio and TV debates for the second round
29 November Second Round

Background[edit source | edit]

The 2020 municipal elections will be the first since the general elections of 2018, since they will be the rise of bolsonarism, a movement in support of President Jair Bolsonaro, also, so a new political-electoral dynamic is emerging on the political scene and, in a way, will be an assessment of the President's electoral strength.[4]

The 2018 general elections, in addition to choosing the President of the Republic, the Governors of State and the Federal District, Senators and Federal, State and District Deputies, granted new Mayors to many cities in the country. This happened due to the fact of art. 14, §6, of the Constitution, establish that:

To run for other positions, the President of the Republic, the State and Federal District Governors and the Mayors must resign their respective mandates up to six months before the election. - Article 14, §6, of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brasil[5]

Thus, many Mayors, wishing to run for other positions, had to resign their mandate until April 5, 2018, starting a new management in such Municipalities. Those who took on such management would be responsible for the remaining period, that is, until December 31, 2020.

The following Mayors resigned from their post to be a candidate for Governor in 2018:

Of the Mayors mentioned above, only one was successful, João Dória, the others, in addition to not winning the elections they disputed, lost their positions as Mayor.[11][12][13][14]

In March 2020, a discussion involving the postponement of the election surrounded the Congress, due to the coronavirus pandemic in Brazil. Some mayors and federal deputies propose that the election should be re-scheduled to 2021 or 2022, fusing with the 2022 general election.[15][16][17] Both President of the Superior Electoral Court, Justice Rosa Weber, and President of the Chamber of Deputies, deputy Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), state that it is "a premature debate" and that it could cause "a very large institutional risk", respectively.[18][19] Federal deputy Aécio Neves (PSDB-MG) filed in a bill to postpone the election to October 2022 and unify all the elections, reduce the term length for Senators to 4 years, ban re-election for Executive seats (President, Governors and Mayors) and increase their term length to 5 years.[20]

Election system[edit source | edit]

Mayoral election[edit source | edit]

The mayoral election has a difference depending on the population of the municipality in question. In municipalities with up to 200,000 voters the first-past-the-post system is used, while in municipalities more than 200,000 the two-round system is used, in compliance with article 77 of the Constitution.[5]

The Municipality will be governed by an organic law, voted in two rounds, with a minimum intersection of ten days, and approved by two thirds of the members of the City Council, who will promulgate it, in compliance with the principles established in this Constitution, in the Constitution of the respective State and the following precepts:

I - election of the Mayor, the Vice-Mayor and the Councilors, for a term of four years, by means of a direct and simultaneous election held throughout the country;

II - election of the Mayor and the Vice-Mayor held on the first Sunday of October of the year preceding the end of the mandate of those who must succeed, applying the rules of art. 77, in the case of Municipalities with more than two hundred thousand voters;

III - inauguration of the Mayor and the Vice-Mayor on January 1 of the year following the election;

IV - for the composition of the City Councils, the maximum limit of:

[Limited number of members of the City Councils in the country according to the number of inhabitants, ranging from 9 councilors (for cities with uo 15,000 people) to 55 councilors (for cities with more than 8,000,000, only one Municipality: São Paulo)]

[...]

- Article 29 of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil[5]

.

The election of the President and Vice-President of the Republic will take place, simultaneously, on the first Sunday of October, in the first round, and on the last Sunday of October, in the second round, if any, of the previous year. the end of the current presidential term.

§1. The election of the President of the Republic will import that of the Vice-President registered with him.

§2. The candidate who, registered by a political party, obtains an absolute majority of votes will be considered elected, not counting the blank and null votes.

§3. If no candidate reaches an absolute majority in the first vote, a new election will be held within twenty days after the result is proclaimed, with the two most voted candidates running and the one with the most valid votes being considered elected.

§4. If, before the second round takes place, death, withdrawal or legal impediment of a candidate occurs, the one with the most votes will be called, among the remainder.

§5. If, in the hypothesis of the previous paragraphs, more than one candidate with the same vote remains in second place, the oldest will be qualified.

- Article 77 of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil.[5]

City Council election[edit source | edit]

The election for City Councils uses the system of proportional representation by open list, however, unlike previous elections, there will be no formation of coalitions for Municipal Legislative Powers, so each party will form a separate list.[4][21]

Results[edit source | edit]

National level[edit source | edit]

In the 2016 municipal elections, parties had the following votes at national level:

Mayoral Election
Party 2016 Votes 2020 Votes Swing Mayors Elected In 2016 Mayors Elected in 2020 Swing
PSDB 17,633,653 803
MDB (former PMDB) 15,026,090 1,037
PSB 8,407,656 415
PSD 8,085,600 541
PT 6,795,749 255
PDT 6,404,512 336
PP 5,747,833 495
DEM 4,937,238 267
PL (former PR) 4,553,814 298
REP (former PRB) 3,882,124 105
PTB 3,565,309 261
CDN (former PPS) 2,621,541 122
PSOL 2,098,633 2
PCdoB 1,781,388 83
PSC 1,761,906 88
PV 1,691,428 102
SD 1,469,099 63
REDE 995,447 6
PHS 957,467 Merged with PODE[22] 38 Merged with PODE[22]
PMN 797,497 28
PODE (former PTN) 697,627 29
PROS 687,250 53
PSL 487,592 31
PMB 283,369 4
PATRI (former PEN) 286,493 14
PRP 280,645 Merged with PATRI[22] 18 Merged with PATRI[22]
PTC 268,155 15
Avante (former PTdoB) 267,680 13
DC (former PSDC) 211,648 9
PRTB 162,418 9
PPL 158,650 Merged with PCdoB [22] 4 Merged with PCdoB[22]
PSTU 78,256 -
NOVO 38,512 -
PCB 24,501 -
PCO 5,689 -
UP[23] New New
Source: Uol[24]

References[edit source | edit]

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