2020 Petrinja earthquake

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2020 Petrinja earthquake
2020-12-29 Petrinja, Croatia M6.4 earthquake shakemap (USGS).jpg
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UTC time2020-12-29 11:19:54
ISC event619627723
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date29 December 2020
Local time12:20 p.m. CET (UTC+1)
Magnitude6.4 Mw,[1] 6.2 ML[2]
Depth10 km (6.2 mi)
Epicentre45°24′01″N 16°13′07″E / 45.4002°N 16.2187°E / 45.4002; 16.2187Coordinates: 45°24′01″N 16°13′07″E / 45.4002°N 16.2187°E / 45.4002; 16.2187
TypeStrike-slip
Areas affected
Max. intensityVIII (Severe)
Foreshocks3 with a ML4.0 or greater
Largest: Mw5.2 at 05:28 UTC, 28 December 2020
AftershocksNumerous
Largest: Mw4.8 at 05:15 UTC, 30 December 2020
Casualties7 dead, 26 injured
Citations[1][2][3]

At approximately 12:20 PM CET (11:20 UTC) on 29 December 2020, an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 Mw, 6.2 ML, hit the Sisak-Moslavina County, Croatia, with an epicenter 3 km (1.8 mi) west-southwest of Petrinja.[1] The maximum felt intensity was estimated at VIII (Heavily damaging) to IX (Destructive) on the European macroseismic scale.[2] Before this event there were three foreshocks, the strongest of which with a magnitude of Mw5.2 on the day before. The earthquake was followed by numerous aftershocks, the strongest of which with a magnitude of 4.8.

Seven people were confirmed dead, and at least 26 others were injured, with six having serious injuries. Initial reports show many buildings destroyed in Petrinja.[4] The mayor of Petrinja Darinko Dumbović said that half of the town has been destroyed.[5][6][7][8]

The earthquake was felt throughout northern Croatia, as well as in large parts of Slovenia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Hungary and even Italy.

Tectonic setting[edit source | edit]

The epicenter is located in a hilly area just south of the Kupa-Sava alluvial plain, with the Zrinska gora mountain and the rest of the Dinaric Alps to the south.

The Pokuplje seismic area follows the Kupa river valley from Karlovac to Sisak. This area has been affected by several historical earthquakes, the best known being the major event in 1909 with the epicenter near Pokupsko, with aftershocks that continued into 1910. It had a maximum felt intensity of VIII on the MCS scale. This seismicity has been associated with reactivation of northwest–southeast trending normal faults that form the southwestern boundary of the Pannonian Basin.[9][10]

The last earthquake on the territory of Croatia that had the intensity of 6.0 ML was in Ston in 1996. In 1962, a 5.9 ML earthquake hit the Makarska region. In 1969, the fault system which extends from Jastrebarsko over this area towards Banja Luka had a 6.6 ML earthquake which hit the latter city, and that one was also preceded by significant foreshocks one day earlier. In 1880, a ML 6.3 struck northeast of Zagreb. In March 2020, a 5.5 ML earthquake struck the city of Zagreb.[11]

Earthquake[edit source | edit]

External video
Spinechilling moment of earthquake during live TV in Croatia, Tancredi Palmeri on Twitter, N1 Croatia cut

The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.4 Mw  and a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) according to Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)[1] and European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC),[12] while the Seismological Service of Croatia recorded 6.2 ML. The maximum felt intensity was VIII (heavily damaging) to IX (destructive) on the European macroseismic scale (EMS)[2] and VIII (severe) on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale (MMI).

The location and depth of this event show that it was an intraplate earthquake that occurred as a result of shallow strike-slip faulting within the Eurasian Plate. The calculated focal mechanism for the event indicates that rupture occurred on a nearly vertical fault striking either to the southeast or southwest.[1]

The earthquake's epicentre at 45°24′0.72″N 16°13′7.32″E / 45.4002000°N 16.2187000°E / 45.4002000; 16.2187000 (45.4002, 16.2187)[3] was located near the village of Strašnik, within the town of Petrinja.[13]

Foreshocks[edit source | edit]

Three foreshocks had hit the same area the day before, estimated by the CSS at magnitudes 5.0, 4.7 and 4.1 respectively.[14]

Foreshocks of Mw  4.0 or greater
Date Time (UTC) M MMI Depth Ref.
28 December 05:28 5.2
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VII ||10.0 km (6.2 mi) || [15]
28 December 06:49 4.7
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VI ||10.0 km (6.2 mi) || [16]

Aftershocks[edit source | edit]

There were 16 aftershocks ML 3.0 or greater recorded within six hours of the main tremor according to CSS.[3]

Aftershocks of Mw  4.0 or greater
Date Time (UTC) M MMI Depth Ref.
29 December 12:34 4.4
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VI ||10.0 km (6.2 mi) || [17]
30 December 05:15 4.8
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V ||10.0 km (6.2 mi) || [18]
30 December 05:26 4.7
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IV ||10.0 km (6.2 mi) || [19]

Damage[edit source | edit]

The town of Petrinja was the worst affected, with many buildings collapsed and a major power outage.[4] Damage and power outages were also reported in Glina, Topusko, Dvor, Gvozd, Hrvatska Kostajnica, Sunja, Velika Gorica, Sisak and Zagreb.[20][21]

Sisak-Moslavina County[edit source | edit]

In Petrinja, the town closest to the epicenter, almost all houses were damaged.[22] The whole town center was heavily damaged.[23] One elementary school was damaged.[24] Roofs of the town hall and the Church of Saint Lawrence were destroyed.[25] The entire village of Brest Pokupski near Petrinja was heavily damaged.[23]

The city of Sisak, located roughly 20 km (12 mi) northeast of the epicenter, suffered major damage to its hospital as well as its city hall. Despite the damage, the hospital was not shut down.[26][27] Most damage was inflicted on old buildings in the center of the town. It is estimated that between 700 and 1,000 houses were damaged in Sisak and nearby villages.[22]

In village of Strašnik where the epicenter was, as well as in nearby village of Sibić almost all houses were damaged. Part of the villages population was evacuated and tents with food and water were set up.[22]

Majske Poljane is a village that suffered most damage from the earthquake, all buildings were damaged and many collapsed. It is also the place with the largest number of deaths, out of seven total fatalities five were in Majske Poljane.[28]

In Žažina, one church collapsed injuring 3 and killing one person.[29]

Zagreb County and City of Zagreb[edit source | edit]

In Pokupsko, many buildings were damaged including a school, a kindergarten and an 18th century church.[30]

The city of Zagreb, which is roughly 50 km (31 mi) to the north of the epicenter, was affected with some building damage, power outages, and many residents taking to the streets in distress.[31]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit source | edit]

Buildings were damaged in multiple towns across northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina (Una-Sana Canton and northern Republika Srpska). Towns which were damaged are: Bihać, Cazin, Kozarska Dubica and Kostajnica which suffered most damage from the earthquake. In Kostajnica, state of emergency was declared, earthquake caused 6 conflagrations and many buildings were damaged including town hall which was declared out of function.[32]

Casualties[edit source | edit]

A 13-year-old girl died and at least 20 others were injured in Petrinja. The town's mayor was quoted stating that half of the town was destroyed.[33][34][35][7] A 20-year-old man and his father were killed when their house collapsed in Majske Poljane near Glina. Three other people were later found dead in the same village.[36][21] Majske Poljane was hardest hit of all the settlements affected by the earthquake. One person was later found dead in Žažina, after the local church collapsed.[20]

International reactions[edit source | edit]

Countries[edit source | edit]

  •  Albania – €250,000 were allocated by the Albanian government for humanitarian aid and future reconstruction of Petrinja, Croatia.[37]
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina – The Ministry of Security offered the Croatian Ministry of the Interior – the Civil Protection Headquarters – assistance after the earthquake. The Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Security, after consultations and coordination with institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, made two protection and rescue teams available: the team of the Federal Civil Protection Administration with 42 rescuers, and the team of the Republic Civil Protection Administration of Republika Srpska with 18 rescuers, which will be sent to the affected area with their accompanying equipment if the aid is accepted by Croatia.[38]
  •  Romania – The Department for Emergency Situations (DSU) showed their willingness to intervene and provide support to the Croatian authorities. The DSU search and rescue teams declared readiness to intervene in Croatia on the basis of the request for assistance made by the Croatian government.[44][45][46][47] Raed Arafat, head of the Emergency Situations Department, requested that the RO-USAR (Romanian – Urban Search and Rescue) teams be prepared to intervene.[48]
  •  SloveniaPrime minister Janez Janša offered to send tents, beds and heaters to help take care of those who lost their homes during the earthquake, he also offered to send experts for damage assessment.[42]
  •  Turkey – President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, in phone calls to his Croatian counterpart Zoran Milanović, extended his condolences to Croatia over the magnitude 6.4 earthquake. Erdoğan also stated that Turkey is ready to provide search and rescue teams and all other help that may be needed.[50]

International organizations[edit source | edit]

Aftermath[edit source | edit]

The earthquake prompted a preventative shutdown of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia, roughly 100 km (62 mi) away.[51][52] The Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary, roughly 300 km (190 mi) away, also felt the earthquake, but did not cease electricity production.[53]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Template:Cite anss
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Seismological Service of Croatia, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (29 December 2020). "Razoran potres kod Petrinje" [Destructive earthquake near Petrinja] (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "OBAVIJESTI O POTRESIMA KOD PETRINJE". pmf.unizg.hr. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Snažan potres magnitude 6,2 pogodio Petrinju, prizori su dramatični, jako se tresao i Zagreb". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  5. "Croatia earthquake: Seven dead as rescuers search rubble for survivors". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  6. "Second earthquake in two days strikes central Croatia, killing seven and damaging buildings". Reuters.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Iz minute u minutu: Snažan zemljotres pogodio Petrinju, najmanje 20 povrijeđenih, poginulo jedno dijete!". BHRT (in Bosnian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  8. "At least 7 dead after magnitude 6.3 earthquake strikes Croatia". NBC News. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  9. Markušić, Snježana (January 2008). "Seismicity of Croatia". In Husebye, Eystein S. (ed.). Earthquake Monitoring and Seismic Hazard Mitigation in Balkan Countries. p. 87. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6815-7_5.
  10. Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan; Tomljenović, Bruno (2009). "Seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms in North-Western Croatia" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 465 (1–4): 215. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.005.
  11. Rudež, Tanja (29 December 2020). "'Danas se treslo 60 puta jače od jučer: Ovo nije isto kao ZG potres, u Petrinji se ponovila Banja Luka'" [‘Today it shook 60 times stronger than yesterday: This is not the same as the Zagreb earthquake, the Banja Luka earthquake happened in Petrinja’] (in Croatian). Jutarnji List. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  12. "Earthquake, Magnitude 6.4 - CROATIA - 2020 December 29, 11:19:54 UTC". EMSC-CSEM. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  13. Prerad, Danijel (29 December 2020). "Naš reporter uživo se javio iz okolice Petrinje: Srušene kuće, ljudi uplašeni, stalno trese". Večernji list. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  14. Rogulj, Danijel (28 December 2020). "5.2 Magnitude Earthquake Rocks Central Croatia (& Update on Aftershocks)". Total-croatia-news.com. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  15. "M 5.2 - 8 km W of Petrinja, Croatia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  16. "M 4.7 - 4 km SSE of Petrinja, Croatia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  17. "M 4.4 - 9 km WNW of Petrinja, Croatia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  18. "M 4.8 - 9 km WNW of Petrinja, Croatia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  19. "M 4.7 - 6 km SSW of Lekenik, Croatia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Hrvatska se non-stop trese: Traže preživjele pod ruševinama u Petrinji i Glini" [Croatia shakes non-stop: Survivors being searched for under the ruins in Petrinja and Glina]. Index.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Deseci ozlijeđenih, druga žrtva potresa je mladić kod Gline. Na više lokacija tragaju za ljudima". 24 sata (Croatia). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "U ponedjeljak navečer slabiji potres kod Velike Gorice, u Sisku i okolici oštećeno između 700 i 1000 kuća". www.vecernji.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Jutarnji list - Jutarnji u mjestu kod samog epicentra potresa: 'Gotovo da nema kuće koja nije stradala...'". www.jutarnji.hr (in Croatian). 28 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  24. "Oštećena je osnovna škola u Petrinji, ravnatelj: Samo sam ja u školi. Sad čekamo procjenu". www.24sata.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  25. "'Nije dobro. Okolica Petrinje teško je stradala, tamo je loše'". www.24sata.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  26. "Velike štete i u Sisku, bolnica je teško stradala, gradonačelnica se slomila: 'Potreseni smo'" [Great damage also in Sisak, hospital badly damaged, mayor breaks down: 'We are shaken']. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  27. "M6.4 Earthquake Hits Croatia - Dec. 29, 2020 potres u Petrinji - YouTube". www.youtube.com.
  28. "Dogradonačelnica Gline: Majske Poljane najteže stradale; još vade ljude iz ruševina, gotovo sve kuće su pogođene". direktno.hr (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  29. "VIDEO Tijelo muškarca pronađeno usred javljanja uživo, tragičan kraj potrage u ruševinama crkve". Dnevnik.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  30. "Epicentar potresa u Pokupskom. Načelnik: Ljudi su istrčali van, u strahu su. Bio je jači nego onaj zagrebački". www.vecernji.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  31. "Oštećenja diljem Zagreba, potpuni kaos na cestama, nema dojava o stradalim ljudima" [Damage throughout Zagreb, total chaos on the streets, no reports of casualties]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). HINA. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  32. "Teške posledice zemljotresa u Bosni i Hercegovini". N1 Srbija (in Serbian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  33. "Hrvaško zjutraj streslo več novih potresov, manj silovitih kot v torek" (in Slovenian).
  34. ""Many injured" as strong earthquake strikes Croatia, Slovenia shuts power nuclear plant as precaution". Reuters. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  35. "Croatia earthquake: Rescue efforts under way in Petrinja". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  36. "Pet žrtava potresa: Preminulo je još četvero ljudi kraj Gline!" [Five victims during earthquake: four dead in Glina]. Večernji list (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  37. "Shqipëria i jep 250 mijë euro ndihmë Kroacisë pas tërmetit tragjik". Euronews Albania (in Albanian). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  38. "Regija uz Hrvatsku: Brojne zemlje ponudile pomoć". N1 BA (in Bosnian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  39. "Greek Officials Express Solidarity With Croatia After Strong Earthquake". Greek City Times. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  40. "Orbán Viktor levélben ajánlotta fel Magyarország segítségét; jelentést kért a magyar hatóságoktól". kormany.hu (Magyarország Kormánya = Govt. of Hungary (in Hungarian). Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  41. "Terremoto in Croazia: Conte, "Italia pronta a fornire tutta l'assistenza e l'aiuto necessario"". agensir.it (in Italian). 29 December 2020.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 "Jutarnji list - Cijela regija uz Hrvatsku, javili se Vučić, Đukanović, Janša i Pahor; Zaev: 'Naša vlada šalje novac'". www.jutarnji.hr (in Croatian). 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  43. "Abazović: Vlada Crne Gore će pomoći Hrvatskoj u saniranju štete". CdM.
  44. "Echipele de căutare-salvare ale DSU, pregătite să intervină în Croaţia". Mediafax (in Romanian). 29 December 2020.
  45. "DSU: Statul român este pregătit să acorde sprijin autorităţilor din Croaţia". Mediafax (in Romanian). 29 December 2020.
  46. "Echipele de căutare-salvare ale DSU, pregătite să intervină în Croația dacă li se va cere". Romanian Television (in Romanian). 29 December 2020.
  47. "Echipele de căutare-salvare ale DSU ar putea să intervină în Croația, după seismul devastator de marți, dacă li se va cere ajutorul". Gândul (in Romanian). 29 December 2020.
  48. "România, pregătită să acorde ajutor Croaţiei, în urma cutremurului. Raed Arafat a cerut ca echipele de Căutare-Salvare RO-USAR să fie pregătite pentru a interveni". B1 TV (in Romanian). 29 December 2020.
  49. 49.0 49.1 "Novi jak zemljotres u Hrvatskoj, osetio se i u Srbiji". BBC News na srpskom (in Serbian). 28 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  50. Altas, Mumin (29 December 2020). "Turkish president condoles with quake-hit Croatia". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  51. Agence France-Presse (29 December 2020). "Slovenia Nuclear Plant Shut After 6.2 Magnitude Earthquake In Neighbouring Croatia". NDTV.
  52. "Poškodbe na fasadah, strehah in dimnikih, kosi ometa padali tudi v predsedniški palači". RTVSLO.si.
  53. "Strong Earthquake Strikes Central Croatia". The New York Times. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.

External links[edit source | edit]

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