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2020 Russian constitutional referendum

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Template:Infobox referendum

A constitutional referendum will be held in Russia from 25 June to 1 July 2020.[1][2][3] The referendum was proposed by President Vladimir Putin during his address to the Federal Assembly on 15 January 2020.[4] The draft amendments to the Constitution were submitted to a referendum in accordance with article 2 of the Law on Amendments to the Constitution.[5]

The referendum is legally referred to as an "All-Russian vote" (Russian: общероссийское голосование, romanized: obshcherossiyskoye golosovaniye), as it is not held in accordance with the Federal Constitutional Law on the Referendum.

The voting was originally scheduled for 22 April, but due to the coronavirus pandemic the vote was postponed to a later date.[6] It had been noted that the initial vote date coincided with Lenin’s 150th birthday.[7][8]

The amendments include one allowing President Putin to run again for two more six-year presidential terms, something he has not yet ruled out, in which critics have accused him of plotting to stay in power for life, while supporters have lauded the inclusion of the amendment.[9]

Proposed amendments[edit source | edit]

For the first time, Vladimir Putin announced possible amendments to the Constitution during his press conference on 19 December 2019.[10][11][12] He said that he is ready to discuss changing the constitutional norms. In particular, he spoke about strengthening the role of the Parliament and canceling the clause "in a row" from the article regulating the maximum number of terms of the presidency (it is thanks to this reservation that Putin was able to be elected President again in 2012, receiving an actual third term of the presidency).

In more detail, Putin spoke about the amendments during his address to the Parliament on 15 January 2020. In addition to the amendments mentioned during the press conference, Putin also proposed a number of amendments to improve social policy and public administration.[13] Immediately after the address, Putin formed a working group to prepare amendments to the Constitution, which included 75 people, including politicians, legislators, scholars and public figures.[14]

List[edit source | edit]

On 20 January 2020, President Vladimir Putin submitted the draft amendments to the State Duma. In total, 14 articles will be changed. In general, the following amendments are proposed:[5][15][16]

  • The Russian Constitution should take precedence over international law;
  • the State Duma (the lower house of Parliament) should have the right to approve the Prime Minister's candidacy (currently it only gives consent to his appointment). The State Duma will also be able to approve the candidates of Deputy Prime Ministers and Federal Ministers; the President will not be able to refuse their appointment, but in some cases will be able to remove them from office;
  • persons who hold "important positions for ensuring the country's security" (President, Ministers, judges, heads of regions) should not have foreign citizenship or a residence permit in other countries, either at the time of their work in office or, in the case of the President, at any time before;
  • A presidential candidate must live in Russia for at least 25 years (currently 10 years);
  • the Federation Council (the upper house of Parliament) will be able to propose to the President to dismiss Federal judges; in some cases, the Federation Council, on the proposal of the President, will have the right to remove judges of the Constitutional and Supreme courts;
  • heads of law enforcement agencies must be appointed by the President in consultation with the Federation Council;
  • the minimum wage cannot be lower than the subsistence minimum;
  • regular indexation of pensions;
  • consolidation of the status and role of the State Council (at present it is only an advisory body and is not prescribed in the Constitution);
  • granting the Constitutional Court the ability to check the constitutionality of laws adopted by the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation at the request of the President before they are signed by the President;
  • remove the "in a row" clause from the article regulating the maximum number of presidential terms, discounting previous presidential terms before the amendment enters into force.

Proposed adoption without a referendum[edit source | edit]

Putin noted that Russia's parliament is legally capable of changing the Constitution, but he argued that a national vote is necessary to make the amendments legitimate.[17] While Putin said the package of amendments should be put to a nationwide vote, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said that vote does not entail a referendum.[18] On January 20 Russian President Vladimir Putin submitted a bill on constitutional amendments to the State Duma (the lower house of parliament).[19][20] The renewal of the Constitution proposed by Russia's President Vladimir Putin requires neither a referendum, nor convening of the Constitutional Assembly.[21]

Proposed consultative All-Russia voting[edit source | edit]

Terminology[edit source | edit]

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by "nationwide voting" on 12 December 1993. This is an official term with legal meaning. Amendments or a new constitution can be also adopted by "nationwide voting". Template:Coquote

Article 3 of the 1993 Constitution of Russia says: Template:Coquote

Chapter 9 (CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AND REVIEW OF THE CONSTITUTION) says: Template:Coquote

Therefore, "referendum" (Russian: референдум, romanized: referendum), "free elections" (Russian: свободные выборы, romanized: svobodnyye vybory) and "nationwide voting" (Russian: всенародное голосование, romanized: vsenarodnoye golosovaniye) are provisioned by the Constitution. 50%+ turnout are obligatory for "nationwide voting" according to the Article 135 of the 1993 Constitution of Russia.

The Federal Constitutional Law on the Referendum was adopted in 1995. A period of campaign, 50%+ turnout and international democratic electoral standards are obligatory for a referendum. The results of a referendum are obligatory and can't be changed unless a new referendum. A consultative referendum is not provisioned in Russia.

Discussion[edit source | edit]

On the other hand, Putin's statement that a “final decision” will be made only after the voting process can be interpreted to mean that the vote itself will not be binding. According to the Constitution, however, that is not the case: The results of a nationwide vote must be enforced as is. This means that a referendum would be conducted as an extraconstitutional procedure (much like an online poll).[22] Critics have accused Putin of orchestrating a "constitutional coup" and seeking to fast-track changes to the country's political system without going through proper procedures including a referendum.[23]

All-Russian voting[edit source | edit]

The renewal of the Constitution requires neither a referendum, nor convening of the Constitutional Assembly,[21] but "All-Russian voting" (Russian: общероссийское голосование, romanized: obshcherossiyskoye golosovaniye) is provisioned by Article 2 of the draft law on making amendments to the Russian Constitution[5][24] Putin introduced this term for the first time and it is not a legal term with clear definition. All-Russian voting is not provisioned by the constitution or mentioned in any federal laws, regional laws or any other legal documents.

Campaign[edit source | edit]

Opposition movements, parties and politicians took a different attitude towards voting.

On 28 February, the head of the Central Election Commission (CEC) of Russia Ella Pamfilova announced the abolition of the scientific and expert council at the commission, explaining this with its "absolutely unacceptable" form and "absolute anachronism". According to RBC, shortly before this, a number of board members wrote a letter criticizing the upcoming vote. Former board member and editor-in-chief of Ekho Moskvy radio station Alexei Venediktov publicly opposed expanding opportunities for early and home-based voting because of the inability to observe the process, which in his opinion could lead to "discrediting of voting results", and linked the dissolution of the council with a negative the attitude of its members to the upcoming vote.[25]

According to political analyst Alexander Pozhalov and founder of the Yabloko party Grigory Yavlinsky, voting on the amendments will essentially become a referendum on Putin's support, and according to Yavlinsky it opens the way to his lifelong rule.[26]

On 4 June, Communist Party leader Gennady Zyuganov called on his supporters to vote against the amendments. He said that "the new version of the Basic Law only strengthens the presidential dictatorship and consolidates oligarchic domination" in a statement. Furthermore, he said that the "July 1 vote is more of a ritual in nature. It does not have the status of a referendum, does not fit with the electoral law. All this once again exposes the falsity of bourgeois democracy." Zyuganov also said that the CEC organises the vote in "a legally dubious procedure" and that "there are unlimited possibilities for fraud." He said that a boycott of the vote would not do anything and that active participation is required.[27]

Opinion polls[edit source | edit]

Date(s) conducted Pollster For amendments Against amendments Undecided/unsure Lead Notes
22-24 May 2020 Levada Center 44% 32% 24% 12%
22 May 2020 WCIOM 61% 22% 17% 39% Only those planning to vote
24-27 April 2020 Levada Center 47% 31% 22% 16%
24-26 April 2020 CIPKR 35% 26% 37% 2%
17 April 2020 WCIOM 50% 26% 24% 24%
2 April 2020 CIPKR 37% 25% 34% 12%
19-25 March 2020 Levada Center 40% 34% 26% 6%
19-25 March 2020 Levada Center 45% 41% 14% 4% Sample given reworded question mentioning amendment allowing Putin to re-run in 2024
11 March 2020 WCIOM 46% 16% 38% 49%
10 March 2020 President Vladimir Putin supported the amendment to the Constitution to reset the terms of the President of Russia and refused to hold snap legislative election
7 March 2020 CIPKR 29% 17% 52% 23%
3 March 2020 WCIOM 55% 12% 33% 30% Only those planning to vote
20–26 February 2020 Levada Center 25% 10% 37% 12%
12 February 2020 WCIOM 46% 16% 38% 30%
29–31 January 2020 Levada Center 72% 13% 15% 59%

References[edit source | edit]

  1. https://2020og.ru/#when
  2. https://meduza.io/en/feature/2020/06/12/look-after-yourself-vote-electronically
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  25. https://openmedia.io/news/n1/glava-cik-raspustila-ekspertnyj-sovet-posle-ego-kritiki-golosovaniya-po-konstitucii openmedia.io
  26. https://www.rbc.ru/politics/10/03/2020/5e679af19a79477f4ca7613d RBK Group
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External links[edit source | edit]

Template:Russian elections