|Commanders and leaders|
Vladislav Ardzinba |
Template:Country data Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Givi Gumbaridze |
|1Involvement prior to 2008 disputed; discussed in the articles about the conflict, particularly here|
The Abkhaz–Georgian conflict involves ethnic conflict between Georgians and the Abkhaz people in Abkhazia, a de facto independent, partially recognized republic. In a broader sense, one can view the Georgian–Abkhaz conflict as part of a geopolitical conflict in the Caucasus region, intensified at the end of the 20th century with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The conflict, one of the bloodiest in the post-Soviet area, remains unresolved. The Georgian government has offered substantial autonomy to Abkhazia several times. However, both the Abkhaz government and the opposition in Abkhazia refuse any form of union with Georgia. Abkhaz regard their independence as the result of a war of liberation from Georgia, while Georgians believe that historically Abkhazia has always formed part of Georgia. Georgians formed the single largest ethnic group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989 but as of 2014[update] most Georgians left in Abkhazia want to remain independent of Georgia. During the war the Abkhaz separatist side carried out an ethnic cleansing campaign which resulted in the expulsion of up to 250,000 ethnic Georgians and in the killing of from 4,000 to 15,000. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) conventions of Lisbon, Budapest and Istanbul have officially recognized the ethnic cleansing of Georgians, which UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708 also mentions. The UN Security Council has passed a series of resolutions in which it appeals for a cease-fire.
Background[edit source | edit]
Soviet era[edit source | edit]
Both Abkhazia and Georgia were annexed into the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, and remained part of it until the Russian Revolutions of 1917. While Georgia initially joined the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and subsequently became independent as the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) in 1918, Abkhazia was initially controlled by a group of Bolsheviks, before ultimately joining the DRG, though its status was never clarified. In 1921 the Red Army invaded Abkhazia and Georgia, eventually incorporating them into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Initially Abkhazia was formed as an independent Soviet republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia (SSR Abkhazia), though it was united with the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic by a treaty; in 1931 the SSR Abkhazia was downgraded to an autonomous republic within the Georgian SSR, to much opposition from the Abkhaz.
Throughout the Soviet era the Abkhazians called for their quasi-independent status to be restored. Demonstrations in support of this occurred in 1931 immediately after the dissolution of the SSR Abkhazia, and again in 1957, 1967, 1978, and 1989. In 1978, 130 representatives of the Abkhaz intelligentia signed a letter to the Soviet leadership, protesting against what they saw as Georgianization of Abkhazia.
War in Abkhazia[edit source | edit]
The conflict involved a war in Abkhazia, which lasted for 13 months, beginning in August, 1992, with Georgian government forces and a militia composed of ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia and Russian-backed separatist forces consisting of ethnic Abkhazians, Armenians and Russians who also lived in Abkhazia. The separatists were supported by the North Caucasian and Cossack militants and (unofficially) by Russian forces stationed in Gudauta. The conflict resulted in an agreement in Sochi to cease hostilities, however, this would not last.
Resumption of hostilities[edit source | edit]
In April–May 1998, the conflict escalated once again in the Gali District when several hundred Abkhaz forces entered the villages still populated by Georgians to support the separatist-held parliamentary elections. Despite criticism from the opposition, Eduard Shevardnadze, President of Georgia, refused to deploy troops against Abkhazia. A ceasefire was negotiated on May 20. The hostilities resulted in hundreds of casualties from both sides and an additional 20,000 Georgian refugees.
In September 2001, around 400 Chechen fighters and 80 Georgian guerrillas appeared in the Kodori Valley in extremely controversial conditions. The Chechen-Georgian paramilitaries advanced as far as Sukhumi, but finally were repelled by Abkhaz and Gudauta based Russian peacekeepers.
Saakashvili era[edit source | edit]
While at a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) summit it was decided to exclude any contact with separatists; the trans-border economic cooperation and transport between Abkhazia and Russia grows in scale, with Russia claiming that all this is a matter of private business, rather than state. Georgia also decries the unlimited issuing of Russian passports in Abkhazia with subsequent payment of retirement pensions and other monetary benefits by Russia, which Georgia considers to be economic support of separatists by the Russian government.
In May 2006 the Coordinating Council of Georgia’s Government and Abkhaz separatists was convened for the first time since 2001. In late July the 2006 Kodori crisis erupted, resulting in the establishment of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. For the first time after the war, this government is located in Abkhazia, and is headed by Malkhaz Akishbaia, Temur Mzhavia and Ada Marshania.
Currently, the Abkhaz side demands reparations from the Georgian side of $13 billion in US currency for damages in this conflict. The Georgian side dismisses these claims. On May 15, 2008 United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution recognising the right of all refugees (including victims of reported “ethnic cleansing”) to return to Abkhazia and their property rights. It "regretted" the attempts to alter pre-war demographic composition and called for the "rapid development of a timetable to ensure the prompt voluntary return of all refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes."
On July 9, 2012, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly passed a resolution at its annual session in Monaco, underlining Georgia’s territorial integrity and referring to breakaway Abkhazia and South Ossetia as “occupied territories”. The resolution “urges the Government and the Parliament of the Russian Federation, as well as the de facto authorities of Abkhazia, Georgia and South Ossetia, Georgia, to allow the European Union Monitoring Mission unimpeded access to the occupied territories.” It also says that the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly is “concerned about the humanitarian situation of the displaced persons both in Georgia and in the occupied territories of Abkhazia, Georgia and South Ossetia, Georgia, as well as the denial of the right of return to their places of living.” The Assembly is the parliamentary dimension of the OSCE with 320 lawmakers from the organization’s 56 participating states, including Russia.
August 2008[edit source | edit]
On August 10, 2008, the Russo-Georgian War spread to Abkhazia, where separatist rebels and the Russian air force launched an all-out attack on Georgian forces. Abkhazia's pro-Moscow separatist President Sergei Bagapsh said that his troops had launched a major "military operation" to force Georgian troops out of the Kodori Gorge, which they still controlled. As a result of this attack, Georgian troops were driven out of Abkhazia entirely.
On August 26, 2008, the Russian Federation officially recognized both South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states.
In response to Russia's recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the Georgian government announced that the country cut all diplomatic relations with Russia and that it left the Commonwealth of Independent States.
After the war[edit source | edit]
Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia have remained tense after the war. Georgia has moved to increase Abkhazia's isolation by imposing a sea blockade of Abkhazia. During the opening ceremony of a new building of the Georgian Embassy in Kiev (Ukraine) in November 2009 Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili stated that residents of South Ossetia and Abkhazia could also use its facilities "I would like to assure you, my dear friends, that this is your home, as well, and here you will always be able to find support and understanding".
See also[edit source | edit]
- Georgian–Ossetian conflict
- Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia
- Sukhumi Massacre
- Politics of Abkhazia
- Russian–Circassian War
Notes[edit source | edit]
- "The staff of the Foreign Ministry of Abkhazia laid a wreath at the memorial in the Park of Glory on the Memorial Day of Fatherland Defenders". mfaapsny.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Gerard Toal (20 March 2014). "How people in South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Transnistria feel about annexation by Russia". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- 1993 Human Rights Report: Georgia. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. US State Department. January 31, 1994. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Georgia/Abkhazia: Violations of the Laws of War and Russia's Role in the Conflict". Human Rights Watch. March 1, 1995. Retrieved August 10, 2019 – via Refworld, UNHCR. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case
- Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
- Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 6 December 1994
- "GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS RESOLUTION RECOGNIZING RIGHT OF RETURN BY REFUGEES". un.org. Retrieved 28 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Bruno Coppieters, Alekseĭ Zverev, Dmitriĭ Trenin (1998). Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Portland, OR: F. Cass. p. 61. ISBN 0714648817.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Welt 2012, pp. 214–215
- Saparov 2015, p. 60
- Lakoba 1995, p. 99
- Hewitt 1993, p. 282
- Abkhazia Today. Archived 2011-02-15 at the Wayback Machine The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 10. Retrieved on May 30, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
- "UN Representative Says Abkhazia Dialogue Is Positive" Archived August 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- Tbilisi-Based Abkhaz Government Moves to Kodori, Civil Georgia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
- Sputnik (11 September 2007). "Abkhazia demands Georgia pay $13 bln war compensation". rian.ru. Retrieved 28 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS RESOLUTION RECOGNIZING RIGHT OF RETURN BY REFUGEES, INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS TO ABKHAZIA, GEORGIA Archived 2008-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, 15.05.2008
- "OSCE Parliamentary Assembly from 5 to 9 July 2012, Final Declaration and Resolutions". Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Harding, Luke (August 10, 2008). "Georgia under all-out attack in breakaway Abkhazia". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 3, 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Russia Recognizes Independence of Georgian Regions (Update2)". Bloomberg. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Georgia breaks ties with Russia" BBC News. Accessed on August 29, 2008.
- Yuschenko, Saakashvili open new building of Georgian Embassy in Kyiv Archived November 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (November 19, 2009)
Bibliography[edit source | edit]
- Chervonnaya, Svetlana (1994), Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia and the Russian Shadow, translated by Ariane Chanturia, Glastonbury, United Kingdom: Gothic Image Publications, ISBN 978-0-90-636230-3 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, London: Curzon Press, ISBN 978-0-70-071162-8 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Cornell, Svante E.; Starr, S. Frederick (2009), The Guns of August 2008: Russia’s War in Georgia, Armok, New York: M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 978-0-76-562508-3 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Derluguian, Georgi M. (1998), "The Tale of Two Resorts: Abkhazia and Ajaria Before and Since the Soviet Collapse", in Crawford, Beverley; Lipshutz, Ronnie D. (eds.), The Myth of "Ethnic Conflict": Politics, Economics, and "Cultural" Violence, Berkeley, California: University of California Press, pp. 261–292, ISBN 978-0-87-725198-9 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Hewitt, B.G. (1993), "Abkhazia: a problem of identity and ownership", Central Asian Survey, 12 (3): 267–323, doi:10.1080/02634939308400819
- Hewitt, George (2013), Discordant Neighbours: A Reassessment of the Georgian-Abkhazian and Georgian-South Ossetian Conflicts, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, ISBN 978-9-00-424892-2
- Lakoba, Stanislav (1995), "Abkhazia is Abkhazia", Central Asian Survey, 14 (1): 97–105, doi:10.1080/02634939508400893
- Rayfield, Donald (2012), Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia, London: Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-78-023030-6 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Saparov, Arsène (2015), From Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: The Soviet Union and the making of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno Karabakh, New York City: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-41-565802-7
- Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation (Second ed.), Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-25-320915-3 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Welt, Cory (2012), "A Fateful Moment: Ethnic Autonomy and Revolutionary violence in the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)", in Jones, Stephen F. (ed.), The Making of Modern Georgia, 1918 – 2012: The first Georgian Republic and its successors, New York City: Routledge, pp. 205–231, ISBN 978-0-41-559238-3 Unknown parameter
- Zürcher, Christoph (2007), The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus, New York City: New York University Press, ISBN 978-0-81-479709-9 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
Further reading[edit source | edit]
- Andersen, Andrew. "Russia Versus Georgia: One Undeclared War in the Caucasus."
- Blair, Heather "Ethnic Conflict as a Tool of Outside Influence: An Examination of Abkhazia and Kosovo.", 2007
- Goltz, Thomas. "Georgia Diary: A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus".M.E. Sharpe (2006). ISBN 0-7656-1710-2
- Lynch, Dov. The Conflict in Abkhazia: Dilemmas in Russian 'Peacekeeping' Policy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, February 1998.
- MacFarlane, S., N., “On the front lines in the near abroad: the CIS and the OSCE in Georgia’ s civil wars", Third World Quarterly, Vol 18, No 3, pp 509– 525, 1997.
- Marshania, L., Tragedy of Abkhazia, Moscow, 1996
- McCallion, Amy Abkhazian Separatism
- Steele, Jon. "War Junkie: One Man`s Addiction to the Worst Places on Earth" Corgi (2002). ISBN 0-552-14984-5
- White Book of Abkhazia. 1992–1993 Documents, Materials, Evidences. Moscow, 1993.
[edit source | edit]
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Georgian-Abkhazian conflict|
- Accord issue on the Georgia Abkhazia peace process also includes chronology and key texts & agreements. (in English and Russian)
- "Documented accounts of ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-06-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Documented accounts of ethnic cleansing of Abkhazians by Georgians (in Russian)
- Government of Abkhazia (-in-exile)
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