Adamawa State

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Adamawa State
État de Adamawa
Land of Beauty/UBA
Location of Adamawa State in Nigeria
Location of Adamawa State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 9°20′N 12°30′E / 9.333°N 12.500°E / 9.333; 12.500
Country Nigeria
EstablishedAugust 27, 1991
 • GovernorUmaru Fintiri (PDP)
 • SenatorsBinos Dauda Yaroe
Elisha Abbo
Aishatu Ahmed Dahiru
 • RepresentativesList
 • Total36,917 km2 (14,254 sq mi)
 • Total3,178,950
Time zoneUTC+1 (GMT)
Postal code
GDP (2007)$4.58 billion[1]
GDP Per Capita$1,417[1]
HDI (2018)0.482[2]
low · 28th of 37

Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, whose capital and largest city is Yola. In 1991, when Taraba State was carved out from Gongola State, the geographical entity Gongola State was renamed Adamawa State, with four administrative divisions: Adamawa, Michika, Ganye, Mubi and Numan.[1] It is the home of the American University of Nigeria in Yola, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola and Adamawa State college of Nursing and Midwifery. It is one of the thirty-six states that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

On May 14, 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Adamawa State, along with neighboring Borno and Yobe States, due to jihadist group Boko Haram's insurgency.[3]

Geography[edit source | edit]

Adamawa is one of the largest states of Nigeria and occupies about 36,917 square kilometres. It is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border forms the national eastern border with Cameroon.[4]

Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue, Gongola and Yedsarem. The valleys of the Mount Cameroon, Mandara Mountains and Adamawa Plateau form part of the landscape.

Economy[edit source | edit]

The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, the Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah zones. Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, millet and rice.

The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers. The state has a network of roads linking all parts of the country.

The development of many communities in the state can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled a swath of territory known as the Northern and Southern Kameruns from Dikwa in the North to Victoria (Limbe) on the Atlantic coast in the 19th century. These were, however, handed over as United Nations Trust Territories to the British at the end of the World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. After a series of referendums, the Northern Kameruns joined Nigeria to form the then Sardauna Province, and the Southern Kameruns formed a Confederation with French speaking Cameroon.

Religion[edit source | edit]

Adamawa State is home to the headquarters of two indigenous churches, the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN Church) with its headquarters in Mubi in the northern zone of the state, and the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church) with headquarters in Numan in the southern zone of the state. The Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN church) was founded in Garkida Gombi Local Government of the state in March 1923 by American missionaries. The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church) was founded in Numan by Dutch missionaries in 1913.

History[edit source | edit]

Before it became a state in Nigeria, Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which also included much of northern Cameroon. The rulers bear the title of emir ("lamido" in the local language, Fulfulde).

The name "Adamawa" came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usman dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804. Modibo Adama came from the region of Gurin (now just a small village) and in 1806, received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years, Adama conquered many lands and tribes. In 1838, he moved his capital to Ribadu, and in 1839, to Joboliwo. In 1841, he founded Yola, where he died in 1848. After the European colonization (first by Germany and then by Britain), the rulers remained as emirs and the line of succession has continued to the present day.

Dancers of Adamawa state in their cultural adornment

A measles outbreak was reported in an internally displaced persons camp in January 2015.[5]

Emirs of Adamawa[edit source | edit]

Emirs of Adamawa have included:

  • Modibbo Adama ben Hassan, 1809–1848
  • Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 (son of the previous)
  • Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 (brother of the previous)
  • Zubayru ben Adama, 1890–1901 (brother of the previous)
  • Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 (brother of the previous)
  • Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 (son of Sanda ben Adama)
  • Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 (son of Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama)
  • Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu, 1924–1928
  • Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 (son of Muhammadu Abba)
  • Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953
  • Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010
  • Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–present

Boko Haram insurgency[edit source | edit]

Adamawa State has been badly impacted by the Boko Haram insurgency. In January 2012, Boko Haram attacked Gombi, Mubi and Yola. By 2014, the state became home to camps housing an estimated 35,000 internally displaced people fleeing violence from Boko Haram in locations including Mubi, Madagali, Askira Uba, Bama and Gwoza in the states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe. In 2014, an estimate placed the number of IDPs around Yola at 400,000.[6] An attack occurred in Chakawa in 2014. A suicide bombing in Yola in 2015 killed over 30 people.[7] A double suicide bombing in Madagali in 2016 killed over 50 people. Mubi is the worst affected place in Adamawa State, suffering major attacks in 2012, 2014, 2017 and 2018.

Organizations serving the community include the Adamawa Peace Initiative (API)- a group of business, religious, and community leaders - and the Adamawa Muslim Council. The United States Agency for International Development has pledged to provide continuing humanitarian assistance.[6]

On 21-22 February 2020, Boko Haram terrorists launched an attack on homes and churches in Garkida, killing three soldiers and wounding civilians.[8]

Sites of interest[edit source | edit]

Local Government Areas[edit source | edit]

Adamawa State consists of twenty-one Local Government Areas (LGAs):

Languages[edit source | edit]

Languages of Adamawa State listed by LGA:[9]

LGA Languages
Demsa Bacama; Bali; Bata; Bille; Mbula-Bwazza; Waka
Fufore Bata; Gengle; Koma; Kugama; Kumba; Mboi; Mumuye; Verre; Wom
Ganye Fulani, Gaa; Koma; Mumuye; Peere; Chamba Daka
Girei Bacama; Bata; Hwana; Mbula-Bwazza
Gombi Bena; Bura-Pabir; Ga'anda; Hwana; Lala-Roba; Mboi; Ngwaba; Nya Huba
Guduniya Ngwaba
Guyuk Bacama; Bena; Dera; Ga'anda; Longuda; Voro
Hong Boga; Nggwahyi; Ngwaba; Nya Huba; Maffa
Jada Chamba Leko
Lamurde Fulani, Kwa; Kyak; Bacama; Dadiya; Dikaka; Dza; Jiba; Tso
Madagali Putai; Maffa; Sukur
Maiha Fulani, Bata; Nya Huba; Nzanyi
Mayo Belwa Fulani, Dong; Gengle; Kumba; Lamja-Dengsa-Tola; Mumuye; Nyong; Chamba Daka; Teme; Yendang
Michika Fulani, Gvoko; Hide; Hya; Kamwe; Lamang; Marghi Central; Maffa; Marghi South; Putai; Vemgo-Mabas; Waja
Mubi Fulani, Daba; Ga'anda; Maffa; Gude; Kirya-Konzel; Marghi Central; Marghi South; Nya Huba
Mubi North Fali; Hya; Zizilivakan
Mubi South Fali
Numan Bacama; Bali; Dza; Kpasham; Kwa; Mbula-Bwazza; Mumuye; Waka; Kaan
Shelleng Kaan; Hwana; Mbula-Bwazza
Song Bata; Bena; Ga'anda; Gudu; Hwana; Kaan; Kofa; Mboi; Mbula-Bwazza; Voro
Toungo Jibu
Yola Fulani, Laka; Mumuye; Verre
Yola North Fulani, Bacama; Bata
Yola South Fulani, Bacama

Notable people[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  3. "Nigeria declares 'massive' military campaign on borders". BBC News. May 15, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. Aga, Chiegeonu (2009). Nigeria: State by State. Nigeria: Lulucom. ISBN 9781105864322.
  5. Mohammed Ismail (January 16, 2015). "Nigeria: Adamawa IDPs' Camps Record Outbreak of Measles". AllAfrica.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Nigeria: U.S., UK, American University Deliver Relief Materials to Adamawa Displaced Persons". Channels Television. November 20, 2014.(subscription required)
  7. Yola market explosion kills 30
  9. "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved January 10, 2020.

External links[edit source | edit]

  • - Articles, photographs, and art from Adamawa State


Coordinates: 9°20′N 12°30′E / 9.333°N 12.500°E / 9.333; 12.500

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