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Agaricus arvensis

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Horse mushroom
Pieczarka polowa vongrzanka.JPG
Agaricus arvensis
Scientific classification
A. arvensis
Binomial name
Agaricus arvensis

Template:Mycomorphbox Agaricus arvensis, commonly known as the horse mushroom, is a mushroom of the genus Agaricus.

Taxonomy[edit source | edit]

It was described as Agaricus arvensis by Jacob Christian Schaeffer in 1762, and given numerous binomial descriptions since. Its specific name arvensis means 'of the field'.

Description[edit source | edit]

Agaricus arvensis showing (the so-called) 'cogwheel' on left-hand specimen

The cap is similar to that of Agaricus campestris (the field mushroom). The gills are white at first (when this fungus is most often confused with deadly genus Amanita). They later pass through grey and brown to become dull chocolate. There is a large spreading ring, white above but sometimes with yellowish scales underneath. Viewed from below, on a closed-cap specimen, the twin-layered ring has a well-developed 'cogwheel' pattern around the stipe. This is the lower part of the double ring. The odor is described as like anise.[1] It belongs to a group of Agaricus which tend to stain yellow on bruising.

Similar species[edit source | edit]

  • Agaricus osecanus is rare, and is without the aniseed smell.[2]
  • Agaricus xanthodermus, the yellow stainer, can cause stomach upsets.
  • Agaricus silvicola, the wood mushroom, is a touch more arboreal, with a frail and delicate ring, but also edible.
  • Agaricus campestris, the field mushroom, is generally (but not always) smaller, has pink gills when young, and is also edible.
  • Agaricus bitorquis, the spring agaricus, looks similar to arvensis and campestris, which are more common in the summer and autumn.
  • Agaricus bisporus is the more commonly cultivated mushrooms of the genus Agaricus.

Distribution and habitat[edit source | edit]

It is one of the largest white Agaricus species in Britain (where it appears during the months of July–November), West Asia (Iran)[3] and North America. Frequently found near stables, as well as in meadows, it may form fairy rings. The mushroom is often found growing with nettles (a plant that also likes nutrient-rich soil). It is sometimes found associated with spruce.[4]

Conservation[edit source | edit]

This mushroom is considered common and widespread, and is not a conservation concern.[5]

Edibility[edit source | edit]

Much prized by farmers for generations, the horse mushroom is regarded as one of the most delicious edible fungi, although the fruitbodies of this and other yellow-staining Agaricus species often have a build-up of heavy metals, such as cadmium and copper.[5]

See also[edit source | edit]

Gallery[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. Miller, Orson. Mushrooms of North America. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1984.
  2. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  3. Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  4. Lincoff, Gary. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Chanticleer Press: New York, 1981.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lua error in ...ribunto/includes/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).

External links[edit source | edit]