Leonov in April 1974
Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov
30 May 1934
|Died||11 October 2019 (aged 85)|
|Occupation||Fighter pilot, cosmonaut|
|Awards||Hero of the Soviet Union (twice)|
|Rank||Major General, Soviet Air Force|
Time in space
|7d 00h 32 m|
|Selection||Air Force Group 1|
Total EVA time
|12 minutes, 9 seconds|
|Missions||Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP)|
Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov[lower-alpha 1] (30 May 1934 – 11 October 2019) was a Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for 12 minutes and 9 seconds of extravehicular activity (EVA).
Early life and education[edit source | edit]
Leonov was born in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Russian SFSR. In 1936, his father Arkhip was arrested and declared an "enemy of the people". Leonov wrote in his autobiography: "He was not alone: many were being arrested. It was part of a conscientious drive by the authorities to eradicate anyone who showed too much independence or strength of character. These were the years of Stalin's purges. Many disappeared into remote gulags and were never seen again." In 1948 his family moved to Kaliningrad. In 1957 Leonov graduated from the Chuguev military pilots' academy in the Ukrainian SSR.
Soviet space programme[edit source | edit]
He was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the first cosmonaut training group in 1960. Leonov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (the only cosmonaut who was not was Konstantin Feoktistov). His walk in space was originally to have taken place on the Voskhod 1 mission, but this was cancelled, and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead. He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to the craft by a 4.8-metre (16 ft) tether. At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov had spent eighteen months undergoing weightlessness training for the mission.
In 1968, Leonov was selected to be commander of a circumlunar Soyuz 7K-L1 flight. This was cancelled because of delays in achieving a reliable circumlunar flight (only the later Zond 7 and Zond 8 members of the programme were successful) and the Apollo 8 mission had already achieved that step in the Space Race. He was also selected to be the first Soviet person to land on the Moon, aboard the LOK/N1 spacecraft. This project was also cancelled. (The design required a spacewalk between lunar vehicles, something that contributed to his selection.) Leonov was to have been commander of the 1971 Soyuz 11 mission to Salyut 1, the first crewed space station, but his crew was replaced with the backup after one of the members, cosmonaut Valery Kubasov, was suspected to have contracted tuberculosis (the other member was Pyotr Kolodin).
Leonov was to have commanded the next mission to Salyut 1, but this was scrapped after the deaths of the Soyuz 11 crew members, and the space station was lost. The next two Salyuts (actually the military Almaz station) were lost at launch or failed soon after, and Leonov's crew stood by. By the time Salyut 4 reached orbit, Leonov had been switched to a more prestigious project.
From 1976 to 1982, Leonov was the commander of the cosmonaut team ("Chief Cosmonaut") and deputy director of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, where he oversaw crew training. He also edited the cosmonaut newsletter Neptune. He retired in 1992.
Later life and death[edit source | edit]
Leonov was an accomplished artist whose published books include albums of his artistic works and works he did in collaboration with his friend Andrei Sokolov. Leonov took coloured pencils and paper into space, where he sketched the Earth and drew portraits of the Apollo astronauts who flew with him during the 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project. Arthur C. Clarke wrote in his notes to 2010: Odyssey Two that, after a 1968 screening of 2001: A Space Odyssey, Leonov pointed out to him that the alignment of the Moon, Earth, and Sun shown in the opening is essentially the same as that in Leonov's 1967 painting Near the Moon, although the painting's diagonal framing of the scene was not replicated in the film. Clarke kept an autographed sketch of this painting—which Leonov made after the screening—hanging on his office wall.
In 2004, Leonov and former American astronaut David Scott began work on a dual memoir covering the history of the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Titled Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race, it was published in 2006. Neil Armstrong and Tom Hanks both wrote introductions to the book.
Legacy[edit source | edit]
- The Leonov crater, near Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow) on the far side of the Moon, was named after Leonov in 1970.
- Arthur C. Clarke's 1982 novel 2010: Odyssey Two was dedicated to Leonov and Andrei Sakharov; and the fictional spaceship in the book, the Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, was named after him.
- Leonov, along with Rusty Schweickart, established the Association of Space Explorers in 1985. Membership is open to all people who have flown in outer space.
- The film The Age of Pioneers (2017) is based on Leonov's account about the Voskhod-2 mission. Leonov was portrayed by Yevgeny Mironov. He was a technical adviser for the movie; the director cut all scenes featuring Gagarin–about 40 minutes of film–so Leonov could be the focus.
- The song "E.V.A" by Public Service Broadcasting on their 2015 album, The Race for Space, references Leonov becoming the first man to undertake extravehicular activity in space.
Russian awards and honours[edit source | edit]
- Order of the Red Star (1961)
- Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (23 March 1965 and 22 July 1975)
- Two Orders of Lenin (23 March 1965 and 22 July 1975)
- Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR (1965)
- Merited Master of Sport of the USSR (1965)
- Order for Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, 3rd class (1975)
- Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
- Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Medals "For Impeccable Service", 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes
- Lenin Komsomol Prize (1980)
- USSR State Prize (1981)
- Order for Merit to the Fatherland, 4th class (2 March 2000)
- Order of Friendship (12 April 2011)
- Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", 3th class (22 May 2014)
- Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", 1st class (29 May 2019)
Foreign awards[edit source | edit]
- Hero of Socialist Labour (People's Republic of Bulgaria, 1965)
- Order of Georgi Dimitrov (People's Republic of Bulgaria, 1965)
- Artur Becker Medal (German Democratic Republic, 1965)
- Order of Karl Marx (German Democratic Republic, 1965)
- Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary (1965)
- Hero of Labor (Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 1966)
- Order of Civil Merit, 1st class (Syria, 1966)
- Order of Merit, 3rd class (Ukraine, 2011)
Public organizations[edit source | edit]
- 1975 Gold Space Medal from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) in 1976. FAI created an exception which allowed Thomas P. Stafford to be awarded it alongside him; typically the award is restricted to one person per year.
- International Space Hall of Fame (1976)
- International Air & Space Hall of Fame inductee (2000)
- Ludwig Nobel Prize (2007)
- Elmer A. Sperry Award (US, 2008), with Konstantin Bushuyev, Thomas P. Stafford, and Glynn Lunney
- Order of Saint Constantine the Great (Union of the Golden Knights of the Order of St. Constantine the Great)
- Order "Golden Star" (Foundation Heroes of the Soviet Union and Heroes of the Russian Federation)
- Order the "Pride of Russia" (Foundation for the "Pride of the Fatherland", 2007)
- National Award "To the Glory of the Fatherland" in the "Glory to Russia" class (International Academy of Social Sciences and International Academy of patronage, 2008)
- Order of "the Glory of the Fatherland", 2nd class (2008)
Other awards and titles[edit source | edit]
- Commander of the Order of Saint Anna III degree (2008), by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia
- Commander of the Order of Saint Anna II degree (2011), by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia
- Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Arts
See also[edit source | edit]
Notes[edit source | edit]
References[edit source | edit]
- "Alexei Leonov: First person to walk in space dies aged 85". BBC News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team: Their Lives and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. 2009. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-387-84824-2.
- Hall & Shayler 2003, pp. 332–333. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHallShayler2003 (help)
- McKinnon, Mika. "50 Years Ago, The First Spacewalk Nearly Ended in Tragedy". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Cosmonaut Leonov recalls life-threatening challenges during historical space walk". UNIS Vienna. 2015.
- Evans, Ben (20 February 2014). "Valeri Kubasov, Veteran ASTP Cosmonaut, Dies Aged 79". America Space. Retrieved 11 October 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Hall, Rex; Shayler, David (7 May 2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hall & Shayler 2003, p. 210. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHallShayler2003 (help)
- Harland, David M.; Catchpole, John E.; Catchpole, John (6 February 2002). Creating the International Space Station. Springer. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-85233-202-0.
- Dicati, Renato (10 January 2017). Stamping the Earth from Space. Springer. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-319-20756-8.
- "Alexei Leonov Biography". Astronautcentral.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Alexei Leonov: winner of the 2005 IAAA Lucien Rudaux Memorial Award". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Clarke, Arthur C. (1982). "Author's Note". 2010: Odyssey Two (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 0-345-41397-0. OCLC 8429900. Clarke describes the painting itself on page 76 of the initial hardback edition.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Абибулаев, Валерий (2 April 2009). "Алексей Леонов: 'Выбирать актеров меня просил Михалков'". Комсомольской правды (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- "Aleksei Leonov and Alexander Gafin become members of the American Pushkin Academy of Art". Alfa-Bank. 23 February 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2007. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Two Sides of the Moon | Alexei Leonov | Macmillan". US Macmillan. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- French, Francis; Burgess, Colin (2007). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961–1965. University of Nebraska Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-8032-2639-5.
- "Soviet Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov Dies at 85". Sputnik News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Leman, Jennifer (11 October 2019). "Alexei Leonov, the First Man to Walk In Space, Has Died". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Brown, Mark (31 August 2015). "First picture drawn in space to appear in cosmonauts show in London". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Leonov, Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN)
- McElheny, Victor K. (15 August 1970). "Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins on Moon again–as Names". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com.
- Suplee, Curt (16 November 1982). "The Galactic Dreamer Returns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Broad, William J. (2 December 1984). "Scince Facts Help Propel Science Fiction in the Film '2010'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Arthur, Allison (23 November 2010). "Fabian named distinguished member of Association of Space Explorers". Port Townsend Leader. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- "First man to conduct spacewalk, Alexei Leonov, dies". AFP.com. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Egorov, Boris (12 April 2019). "3 biopic space films about the USSR's journey into the unknown". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Porzucki, Nina (10 April 2015). "British musical duo Public Service Broadcasting takes us on the race for space". PRI. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Алексей Архипович Леонов" [Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov]. Космическая энциклопедия ASTROnote [Space Encyclopedia ASTROnote]. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Bradsher, Henry S. (23 March 1965). "Moscow Gives Greatest Gala Welcome to Russia's Newest Cosmonauts". The Fresno Bee. Fresno, California. Associated Press. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Astronaut Foresees Space Shuttle Age". Standard-Speaker. Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Associated Press. 22 July 1975. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
- Shabad, Theodore (24 March 1965). "Soviet Spacemen Get Big Welcome". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. The New York Times News Service. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Биография космонавта Алексея Леонова" [Biography of cosmonaut Alexei Leonov]. ТАСС (in Russian). 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- "Edwards Commander Awarded Medals". The Bakersfield Californian. Bakersfield, California. 1 October 1976. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com.
- H. Ritchie, Eleanor H. (1984). Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1976: A Chronology. NASA. p. 282.
- "Alexei A. Leonov, USSR, Inducted in 1976". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Sprekelmeyer, Linda, ed. (2006). These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. San Diego: Donning Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4. OCLC 71812756.
- "Премию Людвига Нобеля возродили". tvkultura.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Воронов, Алексей (31 March 2015). "История возрожденной российской премии Людвига Нобеля — история страны". Известия. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- "The Elmer A. Sperry Award" (PDF). Sperryaward.org. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- "Кому и за что вручается Орден Святой Анны". rg.ru (Rossiyskaya Gazeta).
- ""Earth and Space by Alexei Leonov." On the 80th anniversary of the legendary astronaut". Russian Academy of Arts (in Russian). 2014.
Sources[edit source | edit]
- Hall, Rex; Shayler, David (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. London: Springer. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8. OCLC 840379365.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Further reading[edit source | edit]
- Leonov, Alexey Arkhipovich; Sokolov, Andreĭ K (1967). Zhdite Nas, Zvezdy: The Stars Are Awaiting Us Ждите Нас, Звезды (National government publication) (in Russian and English). Мол. Гвардия (Mol. Gvardii︠a︡ )Moscow. OCLC 8962163. Cite has empty unknown parameter:
|1=(help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Scott, David; Alexei Leonov (2006). Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race. with Christine Toomey. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-30866-3. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Rincon, Paul; Lachmann, Michael (13 October 2014). "The First Spacewalk How the first human to take steps in outer space nearly didn't return to Earth". BBC News. BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Testing of rocket and space technology – the business of my life" Events and facts – A.I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.;
- "Rockets and people" – B. E. Chertok, M: "mechanical engineering", 1999. ISBN 5-217-02942-0 (in Script error: The function "name_from_code" does not exist.)[[Category:Articles with Script error: The function "name_from_code" does not exist.-language external links]]
- "Bank of the Universe" – edited by Boltenko A. C., Kiev, 2014., publishing house "Phoenix", ISBN 978-966-136-169-9
- A.I. Ostashev, Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov – The Genius of the 20th Century — 2010 M. of Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training MGUL ISBN 978-5-8135-0510-2.
- "S. P. Korolev. Encyclopedia of life and creativity" – edited by C. A. Lopota, RSC Energia. S. P. Korolev, 2014 ISBN 978-5-906674-04-3
[edit source | edit]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aleksei Leonov.Template:Preview warning|
- A video of his spacewalk
- The Voskhod 2 mission revisited
- Science fiction art by Leonov and Sokolov. Extensive gallery, with annotation. (in Script error: The function "name_from_code" does not exist.)[[Category:Articles with Script error: The function "name_from_code" does not exist.-language external links]]
- "I could see Armstrong bouncing on the moon" – Alexei Leonov
- The official website of the city administration Baikonur – Honorary citizens of Baikonur
- Alexeï Léonov, the Spacewalker, Vladimir Kozlov's film, France-Russia, 2011
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