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Buryatia

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Republic of Buryatia
Республика Бурятия
Other transcription(s)
 • BuryatБуряад Улас
Flag of Republic of Buryatia
Flag
Coat of arms of Republic of Buryatia
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Buryatia
Map of Russia - Buryatia (Crimea disputed).svg
Coordinates: 53°48′N 109°20′E / 53.800°N 109.333°E / 53.800; 109.333Coordinates: 53°48′N 109°20′E / 53.800°N 109.333°E / 53.800; 109.333
CountryRussia
Federal districtFar Eastern[1]
Economic regionEast Siberian[2]
Established30 May 1923; 97 years ago (1923-05-30)
CapitalUlan-Ude
Government
 • BodyPeople's Khural[3]
 • Head[3]Alexey Tsydenov[4]
Area
 • Total351,300 km2 (135,600 sq mi)
Area rank15th
Population
 (2010 Census)[6]
 • Total972,021
 • Rank54th
 • Density2.8/km2 (7.2/sq mi)
 • Urban
58.4%
 • Rural
41.6%
Time zoneUTC+ ([7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-BU
License plates03
Official languagesRussian;[8] Buryat[9]
Websitehttp://egov-buryatia.ru/

The Republic of Buryatia (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия, tr. Respublika Buryatiya, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bʊˈrʲætʲɪjə]; Template:Lang-bua, pronounced [bʊˈrʲɑːt ʊˈlɑs], Mongolian: Буриад Улс, romanized: Buriad Uls) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Siberia in Asia. Formerly part of the Siberian Federal District, it has been a part of the Russian Far East since 2018.[10] Its capital is the city of Ulan-Ude. Its area is 351,300 square kilometers (135,600 sq mi) with a population of 972,021 (2010 Census).[6]

Geography[edit source | edit]

View of Lake Baikal in Buryatia
View of the valley of the Uda near the village of Khorinsk.
Landscape of southern Buryatia.

The republic is located in the south-central region of Siberia along the eastern shore of Lake Baikal.

Rivers[edit source | edit]

Major rivers include:

Lakes[edit source | edit]

Map of Buryatia.

Mountains[edit source | edit]

Over 80% of the republic's territory is located in the mountainous region, including the Baikal Mountains on the northern shores of Lake Baikal, the Ulan-Burgas east of the lake and the Selenga Highlands in the south near the Mongolia–Russia border.

Natural resources[edit source | edit]

The republic's natural resources include gold, tungsten, zinc, uranium, and more.

Climate[edit source | edit]

  • Average annual temperature: −1.6 °C (29.1 °F)
  • Average January temperature: −22 °C (−8 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 244 millimeters (9.6 in)

Administrative divisions[edit source | edit]

Demographics[edit source | edit]

Population: Template:Ru-census

Settlements[edit source | edit]

Template:Largest cities

Census date 1926 1939 1959 1970 1979 1989 2002 2010
Total population 491,236 545,766 673,326 812,251 899,398 1,038,252 981,238 972,021
Average annual population growth +1.7% +1.1% +1.5% −0.4% −0.1%
Males 248,513 467,984
Females 242,723 513,254
Females per 1000 males 977 1,097
Proportion urban 9.3% 59.6%
Territory (km2) 368,392 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334
Population density/km2 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.8

Vital statistics[edit source | edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[11]
Year Average population (thousands) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 816 14,766 6,301 8,465 18.1 7.7 10.4
1975 862 17,751 7,586 10,165 20.6 8.8 11.8
1980 921 19,859 8,734 11,125 21.6 9.5 12.1
1985 993 23,975 9,529 14,446 24.1 9.6 14.5
1990 1,050 19,185 9,602 9,583 18.3 9.1 9.1 2.18
1991 1,052 16,868 9,753 7,115 16.0 9.3 6.8 2.03
1992 1,049 13,944 10,347 3,597 13.3 9.9 3.4 1.87
1993 1,043 11,981 12,388 −407 11.5 11.9 −0.4 1.65
1994 1,039 12,327 13,650 −1,323 11.9 13.1 −1.3 1.66
1995 1,035 12,311 12,588 −277 11.9 12.2 −0.3 1.60
1996 1,031 12,159 12,441 −282 11.8 12.1 −0.3 1.57
1997 1,025 11,555 12,111 −556 11.3 11.8 −0.5 1.51
1998 1,017 11,746 11,481 265 11.6 11.3 0.3 1.53
1999 1,009 11,468 13,114 −1,646 11.4 13.0 −1.6 1.42
2000 1,001 11,654 13,155 −1,501 11.6 13.1 −1.5 1.42
2001 992 11,678 13,858 −2,180 11.8 14.0 −2.2 1.44
2002 983 12,830 14,404 −1,574 13.1 14.7 −1.6 1.52
2003 977 13,177 15,056 −1,879 13.5 15.4 −1.9 1.51
2004 973 13,399 14,868 −1,469 13.8 15.3 −1.5 1.49
2005 969 13,551 15,144 −1,593 14.0 15.6 −1.6 1.41
2006 966 14,193 13,930 263 14.7 14.4 0.3 1.41
2007 965 15,460 12,802 2,658 16.0 13.3 2.8 1.60
2008 966 16,372 12,948 3,424 16.9 13.4 3.5 1.68
2009 968 16,729 12,466 4,263 17.3 12.9 4.4 2.03
2010 972 16,535 12,386 4,149 17.0 12.7 4.3 1.99
2011 972 16,507 12,299 4,208 17.0 12.7 4.3 2.03
2012 972 17,006 12,064 4,942 17.5 12.4 5.1 2.14
2013 973 17,108 11,479 5,629 17.6 11.8 5.8 2.21
2014 976 17,093 11,182 5,911 17.5 11.5 6.0 2.26
2015 980 16,981 11,152 5,829 17.3 11.4 5.9 2.28
2016 983 16,128 11,047 5,081 16.4 11.2 5.2 2.21(e)
2017 984 14,315 10,445 3,870 14.5 10.6 3.9
2018 984 13,892 10,347 3,545 14.1 10.5 3.6
Ulan-Ude
The village of Baikalskoe on the northern shores of Baikal

Demographics for 2007[edit source | edit]

Source:[12]

District Births Deaths Growth Pop (2007) BR DR NGR
The Republic of Buryatia 12,337 9,833 2,504 960,000 17.13 13.66 0.35%
Ulan-Ude 4,260 3,517 743 373,300 15.22 12.56 0.27%
Bichursky District 339 318 21 26,900 16.80 15.76 0.10%
Dzhidinsky District 512 309 203 30,800 22.16 13.38 0.88%
Yeravninsky District 244 191 53 18,600 17.49 13.69 0.38%
Zaigrayevsky District 714 630 84 48,700 19.55 17.25 0.23%
Zakamensky District 492 322 170 30,400 21.58 14.12 0.75%
Ivolginsky District 498 320 178 31,000 21.42 13.76 0.77%
Kabansky District 702 779 −77 64,400 14.53 16.13 −0.16%
Kizhinginsky District 303 192 111 18,700 21.60 13.69 0.79%
Kyakhtinsky District 629 393 236 40,500 20.71 12.94 0.78%
Mukhorshibirsky District 338 319 19 28,000 16.10 15.19 0.09%
Pribaykalsky District 423 357 66 28,900 19.52 16.47 0.30%
Selenginsky District 628 522 106 47,500 17.63 14.65 0.30%
Tarbagataysky District 205 216 −11 16,900 16.17 17.04 −0.09%
Tunkinsky District 304 249 55 23,000 17.62 14.43 0.32%
Khorinsky District 314 222 92 19,200 21.81 15.42 0.64%
Barguzinsky District 367 272 95 25,600 19.11 14.17 0.49%
Bauntovsky Evenkiysky District 126 92 34 10,500 16.00 11.68 0.43%
Kurumkansky District 232 129 103 15,600 19.83 11.03 0.88%
Muysky District 179 112 67 15,600 15.30 9.57 0.57%
Okinsky District 73 37 36 5,100 19.08 9.67 0.94%
Severo-Baykalsky District 196 161 35 15,200 17.19 14.12 0.31%
Severobaykalsk 259 174 85 25,600 13.49 9.06 0.44%

Ethnic groups[edit source | edit]

According to the 2010 Census,[6] ethnic Russians make up two-thirds of the republic's population, while the ethnic Buryats are only 30%. Other groups include Ukrainians (0.6%), Tatars (0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 Census1 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census2
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Buryats 214,957 43.8% 116,382 21.3% 135,798 20.2% 178,660 22.0% 206,860 23.0% 249,525 24.0% 272,910 27.8% 286,839 30.0%
Soyots 161 0.0% 2,739 0.3% 3,579 0.4%
Russians 258,796 52.7% 393,057 72.0% 502,568 74.6% 596,960 73.5% 647,785 72.0% 726,165 69.9% 665,512 67.8% 630,783 66.1%
Tatars 3,092 0.6% 3,840 0.7% 8,058 1.2% 9,991 1.2% 10,290 1.1% 10,496 1.0% 8,189 0.8% 6,813 0.7%
Ukrainians 1,982 0.4% 13,392 2.5% 10,183 1.5% 10,769 1.3% 15,290 1.7% 22,868 2.2% 9,585 1.0% 5,654 0.6%
Evenks 2,808 0.6% 1,818 0.3% 1,335 0.2% 1,685 0.2% 1,543 0.2% 1,679 0.2% 2,334 0.2% 2,974 0.3%
Others 9,440 1.9% 17,277 3.2% 15,384 2.3% 14,186 1.7% 17,630 2.0% 27,519 2.7% 19,969 2.0% 18,360 1.9%
1 In 1926, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR included Aga-Buryatia, Ust-Orda Buryatia, and Olkhonsky District. These territories were transferred to Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts in 1937. Consequently, the results of the 1926 census cannot be compared to the results of the censuses of 1939 and later.

2 17,019 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[13]

History[edit source | edit]

Unusual blue diopsidite skarn from the Dovyren Highlands, Buryatia. This tumble-polished rock is around 700my old.

Mongolic-related Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in Baikal territory.[14] The territory of Buryatia has been governed by the Xiongnu Empire (209 BC-93 CE) and Mongolian Xianbei state (93-234), Rouran Khaganate (330-555), Mongol Empire (1206-1368) and Northern Yuan (1368-1691).[15] Medieval Mongol tribes like Merkit, Bayads, Barga Mongols and Tümeds inhabited in Buryatia.[15] Today Buryat-Mongols populate the territory of Buryatia.

The area of the present-day Buryatia was first colonized in the 17th century by Russians in search of wealth, furs, and gold.

In 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Buryat: Буряадай Автономито Совет Социалис Республика; Russian: Бурятская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) was created as a result of the merger of State of Buryat-Mongolia and Mongol-Buryat Oblasts. In 1937, Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia were detached from the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR and merged with Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts, respectively. In 1958, the name "Mongol" was removed from the name of the republic. The Buryat ASSR declared its sovereignty in 1990 and adopted the name Republic of Buryatia in 1992. However, it remained an autonomous republic within the Russian Federation. On 11 July 1995 Buryatia signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy.[16] This agreement would be abolished on 15 February 2002.[17]

Politics[edit source | edit]

Modern Buryat home with instruments, scrolls, and weapons typical of Buryatia.

The head of the Republic is the Head (formerly President), who is elected by the voters of the republic for a four-year term. From 2004 to 2012 the head of Buryatia (along with all other heads of regions in Russia) was nominated directly by the Russian President.[18][19]

Between 1991–2007, the President was Leonid Vasilyevich Potapov, who was elected on July 1, 1994, re-elected in 1998 (with 63.25% of votes), and then re-elected again on June 23, 2002 (with over 67% of votes). Prior to the elections, Potapov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic—the highest post at that time.

The current Head of the Republic is Alexey Tsydenov, who was elected by popular vote on 10 September 2017. Prior to this he was acting Head, having been appointed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in February 2017.[20]

The Republic's parliament is the People's Khural, popularly elected every five years. The People's Khural has 66 deputies and is currently dominated by the country's ruling party, United Russia, with 45 seats. Vladimir Anatolyevich Pavlov has been Chairman of the People's Khural since September 2019.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on February 22, 1994.

Economy[edit source | edit]

The republic's economy is composed of agricultural and commercial products including wheat, vegetables, potatoes, timber, leather, graphite, and textiles. Fishing, hunting, fur farming, sheep and cattle farming, mining, stock raising, engineering, and food processing are also important economic generators.

Education[edit source | edit]

The higher education institutions of the republic include Buryat State University, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, East Siberian State Academy of Arts and Culture, and East Siberia State University of Technology and Management.

Religion[edit source | edit]

Religion in Buryatia as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[21][22]
Russian Orthodoxy
27.4%
Other Orthodox
1.2%
Protestantism
0.6%
Other Christians
4.2%
Buddhism
19.8%
Tengrism and Yellow shamanism or Black shamanism
1.8%
Spiritual but not religious
24.8%
Atheism and irreligion
13.4%
Other and undeclared
6.8%

Traditionally, Buryats adhered to belief systems which were based on the deification of nature, belief in spirits and the possibility of their magic influence on the surroundings. They were led by shamans, who systematized tribal beliefs and cults. From the second half of the 17th century, beliefs and cults in the shamanic form were displaced by Buddhism, which became widespread in ethnic Buryatia. By the end of the 19th century, the majority of Buryats were part of the Buddhist tradition. A synthesis of Buddhism and traditional beliefs that formed a system of ecological traditions has constituted a major attribute of Buryat culture.[23]

As of a 2012 survey[21] 27.4% of the population adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 19.8% to Buddhism, 2% to the Slavic Native Faith, Tengrism or Buryat shamanism, 4% declares to be unaffiliated Christian (excluding Protestants), 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to churches or are members of other Orthodox churches, 1% are members of Protestant churches. In addition, 25% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% to be atheist, and 10.8% follows another religion or did not give an answer to the survey.[21]

Tibetan Buddhism and Orthodox Christianity are the most widespread religions in the republic. Many Slavs, who constitute around 67% of the population, are Russian Orthodox. Since the breakup of the USSR in 1991, a small number have converted to various Protestant denominations or to Rodnovery, Slavic native faith. There are also some Catholics among the Slavs. Most of the Germans (0.11% of the population) are also Orthodox, so are some other non-European groups like Armenians (0.23%), Georgians (0.03%), and Soyot (0.37%). Buryats constitute 30.04% of the total population.

Most urban Buryats are either Buddhist or Orthodox, while those in the rural areas often adhere to Yellow shamanism, a mixture of shamanism and Buddhism, or to Black shamanism.[24] There are also Tengrist movements. Siberian Tatars are around 0.7% of the population. However, due to isolation from the main body of Tatars, many of them now are either non-religious or Orthodox. Islam is followed by immigrant groups like Azeris and Uzbeks, who constitute another 0.7% of the population.

Tourism[edit source | edit]

Lake Baikal is a popular tourist destination, especially in summer.

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. Template:Cite Russian law
  2. Template:Cite Russian law
  3. 3.0 3.1 Constitution, Article 5.3
  4. Ruling Party Dominates Russian Elections Amid Low Turnout, Opposition Claims Strong Moscow Showing
  5. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Template:Ru-pop-ref
  7. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  8. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. Constitution, Article 67
  10. "Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации". publication.pravo.gov.ru. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  11. Демографический ежегодник России [Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2008-10-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  14. History of Mongolia, Volume I, 2003
  15. 15.0 15.1 History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
  16. Solnick, Steven (29 May 1996). "Asymmetries in Russian Federation Bargaining" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research: 12.
  17. Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146.
  18. Putin signs law to allow him to pick Russian governors
  19. Russia reinstates governor elections
  20. [1]
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  22. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  23. Esuna Dugarova. Buryatia – a symbol of Eurasia in the heartland of Baikal. UN Special (magazine)
  24. Shimamura, Ippei (2014). The Roots Seekers: Shamanism and Ethnicity among the Mongol Buryats. Yokohama, Tanagawa, Japan: Shumpusha Publishing. ISBN 978-4-86110-397-1.

Sources[edit source | edit]

Further reading[edit source | edit]

  • Leisse, Olaf; Utta-Kristin Leisse (September 2007). "A Siberian Challenge: Dealing with Multiethnicity in the Republic of Buryatia". Nationalities Papers. 35 (4): 773–788. doi:10.1080/00905990701475178.
  • Anthology of Buryat folklore, Pushkinskiĭ dom, 2000 (CD)

External links[edit source | edit]

Template:Subdivisions of Russia Template:Buryatia Template:Russian Far East