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C. T. Vivian

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C. T. Vivian
C.T. Vivian.jpg
C. T. Vivian in September 2015
Cordy Tindell Vivian

(1924-07-30)July 30, 1924
DiedJuly 17, 2020(2020-07-17) (aged 95)
OccupationMinister and author

Cordy Tindell Vivian (July 30, 1924 – July 17, 2020) was an American minister, author, and close friend and lieutenant of Martin Luther King Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement.[1] Vivian resided in Atlanta, Georgia, and founded the C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute, Inc. He was a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity.[2]

President Barack Obama, speaking at Selma's Brown Chapel on the March 2007, anniversary of the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches, recognized Vivian in his opening remarks in the words of Martin L. King Jr. as "the greatest preacher to ever live."[3]

Early life[edit source | edit]

Vivian was born in Boonville, Missouri.[1] As a small boy he migrated with his mother to Macomb, Illinois, where he attended Lincoln Grade School and Edison Junior High School. Vivian graduated from Macomb High School in 1942[4] and attended Western Illinois University in Macomb, where he worked as the sports editor for the school newspaper.[5] His first professional job was recreation director for the Carver Community Center in Peoria, Illinois. There, Vivian participated in his first sit-in demonstrations, which successfully integrated Barton's Cafeteria in 1947.[6]

Career[edit source | edit]

Studying for the ministry at American Baptist College in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1959, Vivian met James Lawson, who was teaching Mohandas Gandhi's nonviolent direct action strategy to the Nashville Student Movement. Soon Lawson's students, including Diane Nash, Bernard Lafayette, James Bevel, John Lewis and others from American Baptist, Fisk University and Tennessee State University, organized a systematic nonviolent sit-in campaign at local lunch counters.[4] On April 19, 1960, 4,000 demonstrators peacefully walked to Nashville's City Hall, where Vivian and Diane Nash discussed the situation with Nashville Mayor Ben West. As a result, Mayor West publicly agreed that racial discrimination was morally wrong. Many of the students who participated in the Nashville Student Movement soon took on major leadership roles in both the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).[7]

Vivian helped found the Nashville Christian Leadership Conference, and helped organize the first sit-ins in Nashville in 1960 and the first civil rights march in 1961. In 1961, Vivian participated in Freedom Rides. He worked alongside Martin Luther King Jr. as the national director of affiliates for the SCLC.[8] During the summer following the Selma Voting Rights Movement, Vivian conceived and directed an educational program, Vision, and put 702 Alabama students in college with scholarships (this program later became Upward Bound).[9] His 1970 Black Power and the American Myth was the first book on the Civil Rights Movement by a member of Martin Luther King's staff.[4]

In the 1970s Vivian moved to Atlanta, and in 1977 founded the Black Action Strategies and Information Center (BASICS), a consultancy on multiculturalism and race relations in the workplace and other contexts. In 1979 he co-founded, with Anne Braden, the Center for Democratic Renewal (initially as the National Anti-Klan Network), an organization where blacks and whites worked together in response to white supremacist activity.[10] In 1984 he served in Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign, as the national deputy director for clergy. In 1994 he helped to establish, and served on the board of Capitol City Bank and Trust Co., a black-owned Atlanta bank.[11] He served on the board of Every Church a Peace Church.[12]

Vivian continued to speak publicly and offer workshops, and did so at many conferences around the country and the world, including with the United Nations.[13] He was featured as an activist and an analyst in the civil rights documentary Eyes on the Prize, and was featured in a PBS special, The Healing Ministry of Dr. C. T. Vivian. He made numerous appearances on Oprah as well as the Montel Williams Show and Donahue.[14] He was the focus of the biography Challenge and Change: The Story of Civil Rights Activist C.T. Vivian by Lydia Walker.[15]

In 2008, Vivian founded and incorporated the C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute, Inc. (CTVLI) to "Create a Model Leadership Culture in Atlanta" Georgia. The C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute conceived, developed and implemented the "Yes, We Care" campaign on December 18, 2008 (four days after the City of Atlanta turned the water off at Morris Brown College (MBC) and, over a period of two and a half months, mobilized the Atlanta community to donate in excess of $500,000 directly to Morris Brown as "bridge funding." This effort saved this Historically Black College or University (HBCU) and allowed the college to negotiate with the city which ultimately restored the water services to the college.[16]

Later life[edit source | edit]

On August 8, 2013, President Barack Obama named Vivian as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The citation in the press release reads as follows:

C. T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country. Vivian also helped found numerous civil rights organizations, including Vision, the National Anti-Klan Network, and the Center for Democratic Renewal. In 2012, he returned to serve as interim President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[17]

Vivian died on July 17, 2020, in Atlanta 2 weeks before his 96th birthday,[4] the same day as his friend and fellow activist, John Lewis.[18]

Works[edit source | edit]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Cole, Eric. "Vivian, Cordy Tindell "C.T." (1924– )". BlackPast.org. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  2. "Civil rights veterans join Martin Luther King Jr.'s fraternity; Alpha Phi Alpha holds initiation ceremony in Atlanta". Alpha Phi Alpha. December 10, 2010. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  3. DuBois, Joshua. (January 5, 2014) "Keeping Tabs on Obama’s Church Attendance Is No Way to Gauge His Faith". Politics section. The Daily Beast. retrieved August 10, 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Robert D. McFadden (July 30, 1924). "C.T. Vivian, Martin Luther King's Field General, Dies at 95 – The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  5. "Macomb, WIU Honor C.T. Vivian – Western Illinois University News – Office of University Relations". Wiu.edu. October 1, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  6. Suggs, Ernie; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "C.T. Vivian, civil rights hero and intellectual, dead at 95". ajc.
  7. Marian Wright Edelman (October 8, 2019). "Rev. C.T. Vivian's Wisdom: We are at a crossroads in history | Commentary". phillytrib.com. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  8. 2:41 PM ET (April 18, 2018). "C.T. Vivian, Civil Rights Leader And Champion Of Nonviolent Action, Dies At 95". NPR. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  9. News, A. B. C. "Rev. C.T. Vivian, key civil rights leader, has died at 95". ABC News.
  10. Leonard Zeskind, "The Center for Democratic Renewal Closes its Doors", March 28, 2008.
  11. "Timeline". Archived from the original on February 8, 2004. Retrieved April 20, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Peoria Journal Star, October 24, 1999.
  12. "Board of Directors, Every Church a Peace Church". Ecapc.org. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  13. Reverend C. T. Vivian Archived June 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Providence Missionary Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia.
  14. "19 Sep 2010, Page 1 – Palladium-Item at". Newspapers.com. September 19, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  15. "21 Oct 1993, Page 24 – The Tennessean at". Newspapers.com. October 21, 1993. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  16. rtmadminadw (July 30, 1924). "C. T. Vivian dies at age 95, place in history is secure". Chicago Defender. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  17. "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  18. Malveaux, Suzanne; Fox, Lauren; Karimi, Faith; Griggs, Brandon (July 18, 2020). "Civil rights legend Rep. John Lewis dead at 80". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2020.

Further reading[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]

Template:Civil rights movement