COVID-19 apps are mobile software applications that use digital tracking to aid contact tracing in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e. the process of identifying persons ("contacts") who may have been in contact with an infected individual.
Numerous applications were developed or proposed, with official government support in some territories and jurisdictions. Several frameworks for building contact tracing apps have been developed. Privacy concerns have been raised, especially about systems that are based on tracking the geographical location of app users.
Less intrusive alternatives include the use of Bluetooth signals to log a user's proximity to other cellphones. On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple jointly announced that they would integrate functionality to support such Bluetooth-based apps directly into their Android and iOS operating systems.
Countries with official contact tracing apps[edit source | edit]
- COVIDSafe is a digital contact tracing app announced by the Australian Government on 14 April 2020 to help combat the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The app is based on the BlueTrace protocol developed by the Singaporean Government, and was first released on 26 April 2020.
- BeAware Bahrain is the official mobile app for Android and iOS, developed by The Information & eGovernment Authority (iGA), in collaboration with the National Taskforce for Combating the Coronavirus (COVID-19). The application aims to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 by implementing contact tracing efforts to identify and keep track of all active cases and their contacts. It also uses location data of citizens to alert individuals in the event they approach an active case or a location an active case has visited, as well as track the movement of quarantine cases for a duration of 14 days. It also posts health recommendations and live data of global COVID-19 developments; iGA Chief Executive, Mohammed Ali Al Qaed said: “The application deploys a tamper-proof GPS Tracking Bracelet to share real time-tracking information with health workers. Health workers are notified when quarantine cases exit their pre-set area by 15 meters, in which case the team will respond by reminding individuals of the importance of following procedures to safeguard the well-being of citizens and residents.”
- The Chinese government, in conjunction with Alipay, has deployed an app that allows citizens to check if they have been in contact with people that have COVID-19. It is in use across more than 200 Chinese cities.
- CoronApp is the mobile app for Android and iOS –and available for the Huawei AppGallery– developed by the Colombian government. The app, downloaded more than 1.2 million users, is a free application, which does not consume data; it helps detect affected areas and nearby people with a positive diagnosis for COVID-19. CoronApp facilitates the real-time monitoring of data collected to the Emergency Operations Center of the Instituto Nacional de Salud (National Health Institute, INS). It incorporates technologies such as those developed by the Governments of Singapore and South Korea, as well as Apple. Privacy, the major concern with these applications from organizations around the world, has not been the exception for Colombia: Fundación Karisma points out some vulnerabilities of CoronApp. As an additional benefit of the app, the Colombian Government will finance 1 gigabyte per month and 100 minutes for users of prepaid lines that install it.
- Czech Republic
- The government has launched a Singapore-inspired tracing app called eRouška (eFacemask). The app was developed by local IT community, released as open source and will be handed over to the government.
- The government launched "GH Covid-19 Tracker App", an Android and IOS app equipped with location tracking technology to provide detailed information about people who have been at the same event, location, country or other defined locations in order to provide accurate information to health authorities overtime to know who to screen and provide needed assistance. The app was developed by the Ministry of Communication and Technology and Ministry of Health. As of 14 April 2020[update], the app was awaiting approval by the Google Play Store and Apple App Store.
- VírusRadar, an Android app has been launched on May 13, 2020. An iOS version is soon to follow. The app uses Bluetooth technology to track unique, random AppID's in the proximity of 2 meters for more than 20 minutes in the last 14 days. The system has been developed by Nextsense, it is oeprated under the umbrella of the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary, operated by the Governmental Agency for IT Development and is supported by biztributor
- Rakning C-19 route tracking is GPS logger app for Android and iOS which basic userinterface and most of the content is same than https://www.covid.is web page. When infection is confirmed the route data is used to support the more traditional contact tracing. According to MIT technology review on May 11, 2020 it had the largest penetration rate of all contact trackers in the world, having been downloaded by 38% of Icelanders.
- The Aarogya Setu app that is developed by the National Informatics Centre that comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India. The App is available on Google Play Store and Apple App Store for download.
- The Ministry of Health launched "HaMagen", an iOS and Android contact tracing app launched on March 22, 2020. Hamagen tracks a user's whereabouts using standard location APIs and then compares them to known movements of those diagnosed with COVID-19. In order to check if paths were crossed within the previous 14 days. The Hamagen app was specifically designed with a novel privacy-first approach as information about locations and times is cross-referenced on the user's device, and not transmitted on to the cloud.
- The government launched MyTrace on May 3, 2020, one of three tracing app that released alongside Gerak Malaysia and MySejahtera. Gerak Malaysia is a tracing app which allows police and Ministry of Health to track and analyze users movement, and register for permission to allow state border crossing. MySejahtera is an app build by National Security Council and Ministry of Health to retrieve information regarding the updated information and statistics of the pandemic. MyTrace is a tracing app that utilizes Bluetooth to detect how long a user smartphone are proximity with other smartphone users with similar app installed, although initially only made available on Android.
- North Macedonia
- The government launched "StopKorona!" on April 13, 2020, becoming the first country in the Western Balkans to launch a COVID-19 tracing app. The Bluetooth-based app traces exposure with potentially infected persons and helps healthcare authorities to provide a fast response. The app was developed and donated by Skopje-based Software company Nextsense. With regards to laws on data protection, the app does not use the users’ locations nor personal information. The users’ mobile numbers are the only user-related data, stored on servers managed by the Ministry of Health.
- The Smittestopp app that is developed by the Norwegian government needs Bluetooth and GPS signals.
- Saudi Arabia
- Corona Map Saudi Arabia is the official mobile app for Web, Android and iOS, developed by The National Health Information Center (NHIC)  - NHIC has developed its own COVID-19 interactive map application that allows users to track all COVID-19 cases in the world with statistics and charts and the ability to talk to BashairBot to answer questions about COVID-19. More than 130k+ users are in the app. 31,248 people. 
- An app called TraceTogether is being used. Additionally a digital contact tracing protocol, BlueTrace, was developed, with an open source reference implementation, OpenTrace.
Countries considering deployment[edit source | edit]
In the United Kingdom, Matthew Gould, chief executive of NHSX, the government body responsible for policy regarding technology in the NHS, said in late March 2020 that the organisation was looking seriously at an app that would alert people if they had recently been in contact with someone testing positive for the virus after scientists advising the government suggested it "could play a critical role" in limiting lockdowns. On 22 April, the government announced that alpha testing of a prototype of the app was in progress at RAF Leeming. Beta testing began on the Isle of Wight on 5 May for council staff and NHS workers before a wider rollout to all residents on 7 May. By 15 May, over 72,000 had downloaded the app, equivalent to more than half of the island's population.
France has begun development of an app ("StopCovid").
Many countries have announced the official development, trial or adoption of decentralized proximity tracing systems, where the matching of proximity encounters happens locally on individuals' devices, such as the Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP-3T) protocol or the Google-Apple Exposure Notification API. These include Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Latvia, Canada, Italy, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Ireland and Denmark.
Rationale[edit source | edit]
Contact tracing is an important factor in infectious disease control. Contact tracing is more effective at earlier stages of an outbreak than at later stages where most of the community is self-isolating anyway. Digital contact tracing, especially if widely deployed, may be more effective than traditional methods of contact tracing. Some proponents advocate for legislation exempting certain COVID-19 apps from previous general privacy restrictions. In a 2020 Oxford University model of a coronavirus outbreak in a city of one million people, the outbreak is halted if 80% of all smartphone users use a tracking system. In the model, the elderly are still expected to self-isolate en masse, but individuals who are neither symptomatic nor elderly are exempt from isolation unless they receive an alert that they are at risk of carrying the disease.
Issues[edit source | edit]
Take-up[edit source | edit]
Ross Anderson, professor of security engineering at Cambridge University, listed a number of potential practical problems with app-based systems, including false positives and the potential lack of effectiveness if takeup of the app is limited to only a small fraction of the population. In Singapore, only one person in six downloaded the TraceTogether App by April 2020; the app was also underused due to the fact that it required users to keep the app open at all times.
The proposed Google/Apple contact tracing plan intends to mitigate the take-up problem by incorporating the tracing mechanism in their device operating systems, distributed by standard software update mechanisms. By phase two, the operating system would be able to track exposure without the need to download a separate COVID-19 app.
A team at the University of Oxford simulated the effect of a contact tracing app on a city of 1 million. They estimated that if the app was used in conjunction with the shielding of over-70s, then 56% of the population would have to be using the app for it to suppress the virus. This would be equivalent to 80% of smartphone users in the United Kingdom. They found that the app could still slow the spread of the virus if fewer people downloaded it, with one infection being prevented for every one or two users.
App store restrictions[edit source | edit]
Addressing concerns about the spread of misleading or harmful "coronavirus" apps, Apple set limits on which types of organizations could add coronavirus-related apps to its App Store, limiting them to only "official" or otherwise reputable organizations. Google and Amazon have implemented similar restrictions.
Privacy, discrimination and marginalisation concerns[edit source | edit]
Privacy campaigners voiced their concern regarding the implications of mass surveillance using coronavirus apps, in particular about whether surveillance infrastructure created to deal with the coronavirus pandemic will be dismantled once the threat has passed. American Civil Liberties Union has published a set of principles for technology-assisted contact tracing and  Amnesty International and over 100 other organizations issued a statement calling for limits on this kind of surveillance. The organisations declared eight conditions on governmental projects:
- surveillance would have to be "lawful, necessary and proportionate";
- extensions of monitoring and surveillance would have to have sunset clauses;
- the use of data would have to be limited to COVID-19 purposes;
- data security and anonymity would have to be protected and shown to be protected based on evidence;
- digital surveillance would have to address the risk of exacerbating discrimination and marginalisation;
- any sharing of data with third parties would have to be defined in law;
- there would have to be safeguards against abuse and the rights of citizens to respond to abuses;
- "meaningful participation" by all "relevant stakeholders" would be required, including that of public health experts and marginalised groups.
The proposed Google/Apple contact tracing plan intends to address the problem of persistent surveillance by removing the tracing mechanism from their device operating systems once it is no longer needed.
On 20 April 2020, it was reported that over 300 academics had signed a statement favouring decentralised proximity tracing applications over centralised models, given the difficulty in precluding centralised options being used "to enable unwarranted discrimination and surveillance." In a centralised model, a central database records the ID codes of meetings between users. In a decentralised model, this information is recorded on individual phones, with the role of the central database being limited to identifying phones by their ID code when an alert needs to be sent.
According to Human Rights Watch, government mobile application programs against Covid-19 pose serious threat to human rights. Government across the globe are using Geolocation and Proximity information from mobile phones and other devices, which directly crush the privacy rights of users.
General approaches[edit source | edit]
Centralized contact tracing[edit source | edit]
Some countries used network-based location tracking instead of apps, eliminating both the need to download an app and the ability to avoid tracking. In Israel, network-based tracking was approved. Network-based solutions that have access to raw location data have significant potential privacy problems. However, not all systems with central servers need to have access to personal location data; a number of privacy-preserving systems have been created that use central servers only for intercommunication (see section below).
In South Korea, a non-app-based system was used to perform contact tracing. Instead of using a dedicated app, the system gathered tracking information from a variety of sources including mobile device tracking data and card transaction data, and combined these to generate notices via text messages to potentially-infected individuals. In addition to using this information to alert potential contacts, the government has also made the location information publicly available, something permitted because of far-reaching changes to information privacy laws after the MERS outbreak in that country. This information is available to the public via a number of apps and websites.
Decentralized contact tracing[edit source | edit]
As of 7 April 2020, over a dozen expert groups were working on privacy-friendly solutions, such as using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) to log a user's proximity to other cellphones. Users then receive a message if they've been in close contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19.
A group of European researchers, including from the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), were under the umbrella of the Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (PEPP-PT) project, developing a BLE-based app to serve this purpose that is designed to avoid the need for intrusive surveillance by the state. However, PEPP-PT is a co-ordination effort which contains both centralised and decentralised approaches. On April 17, 2020, EPFL and the ETH Zurich pulled out of the project, criticizing PEPP-PT for a lack of transparency and openness, and for not respecting personal privacy enough. Later it was reported that KU Leuven, the CISPA Helmholz Center for Information Security, the European Laboratory for Learning and Intelligent Systems and the Technical University of Denmark, also withdrew from the project. On April 26, 2020, Germany switched to decentralised approach to support solutions like DP-3T.
Decentralised protocols include Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP-PPT/DP-3T), The Coalition Network's Whisper Tracing Protocol, the global TCN Coalition's TCN ("Temporary Contact Numbers") Protocol, and the MIT Media Lab's SafePaths. The goal of decentralization is to reduce the loss of privacy, by exchanging anonymous keys that do not include identifiable information.
COCOVID  is being developed as a common effort of several European companies and institutions. The Mobile Application, the Big Data and the Artificial Intelligence components will be available to any government. The COCOVID app is Open Source and the backend is based on a highly scalable solution that is already used by several of the largest financial institutions in Europe. COCOVID will support the coordination of tests at medical institutions, allowing users with a high infection risk to book a test slot directly from the app. This will reduce the effort and increase the efficiency of the medical test processes. COCOVID will use both location and Bluetooth contact data, allowing a high level of effectiveness. The solution is designed following the EU data privacy recommendations. The team working on the project includes persons from Orange, Ericsson, Proventa AG, Stratio, TH Köln and Charta digitale Vernetzung.
Google / Apple contact tracing project[edit source | edit]
On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple, the companies that control the Android and iOS mobile platforms, announced an initiative for contact tracing, which they stated would preserve privacy, based on a combination of Bluetooth Low Energy technology and privacy-preserving cryptography. They also published specifications of the core technologies used in the system. According to Apple and Google, the system is intended to be rolled out in three stages:
- API specification and publication
- rollout of tools to enable governments to create official privacy-preserving coronavirus tracing apps
- integration of this functionality directly into iOS and Android
Google and Apple plan to address the take-up and persistent surveillance problems by first distributing the system through operating system updates, and later removing it in the same way once the threat has passed.
List of frameworks[edit source | edit]
List of apps by country[edit source | edit]
Note: This table should list only apps which are either supported by citations from third-party reliable sources, or are from, or supported by, independently notable organizations such as national governments, industrial collaborations, major universities or NGOs, or one of the framework collaborations listed above.
|Angola||COVID-19 AO||self diagnostic, information and quarantine enforcement||Web||Ravelino de Castro||Proprietary||https://covid19ao.com/|||
|Australia||Coronavirus Australia||information, isolation registration||Android, iOS||Delv Pty Ltd / Australian Department of Health||in use||Proprietary||health.gov.au||27/04, 1.89 million; 26/04: 1 million|||
|COVIDSafe||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Australian Department of Health||in use||Proprietary||BlueTrace||covidsafe.gov.au||07/05, 4 million|||
|Austria||Stopp Corona||contact tracing, medical reporting||Android, iOS||Austrian Red Cross||in use||Apache License 2.0||DP-3T||www.roteskreuz.at|||
|China||"Alipay Health Code"||contact tracing||Android, iOS||integrated into Alipay and WeChat apps||Proprietary|||
|Czech Republic||eRouška||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Czech Ministry of Health and Hygiene||in use||MIT License||own||erouska.cz|||
|Finland||Ketju||contact tracing||Android, iOS||2M-IT, Futurice, Reaktor Finland, Fractal, Sitra||small pilot test in May||unknown||DP-3T||ketjusovellus.fi|||
|France||StopCovid||contact tracing||unknown||Government of France / INRIA, ANNSI, Cap Gemini, Dassault Systèmes, INSERM, Lunabee studio, Orange, Santé publique France, Withings, Coalition Network||github
|ROBERT (ROBust and privacy-presERving proximity Tracing protocol)||contact tracing||unknown||INRIA||PEPP-PT||github
|Georgia||Stop Covid||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Novid20 / Georgian Ministry of Health||in use||GPL||PEPP-PT||novid20
|Germany||Ito||contact tracing||Android||Partners like TUM||APK file released||GPL3||TCN||www
|OHIOH Framework||contact tracing, scientific research||Android, OS||FH Kiel]||APK file released||MIT||TCN||ohioh
|Greece||DOCANDU Covid Checker||self diagnostic, information and 24/7 online doctor||Android, Web-based / Web-site Widget||DOCANDU, Region of Attica (Greece), Athens Medical Association (Greece)||in use (2020-03-26)||https://www.docandu.com/en||27/04, 18,000 users|||
|Ghana||GH COVID-19 Tracker App||Android, iOS: awaiting app store approvals||Ministry of Communication and Technology, Ministry of Health|||
|Hong Kong||Stay Home Safe||quarantine enforcement||Unknown||The Government Of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region||Unknown|||
|Hungary||VírusRadar||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Ministry of Innovation and Technology and NextSense||in use (2020-05-13-)||https://virusradar.hu|
|Iceland||Rakning C-19||route tracking||Android, IOS||Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management and Directorate of Health||in use (2020-04-01)||MIT License||GPS||https://www.covid.is/app/en||26/04, 50%|||
|India||Aarogya Setu||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Union Government of India / National Informatics Centre||mygov.in/aarogya-setu-app||50million +|||
|COVA Punjab||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Government of Punjab|||
|COVID-19 Feedback||feedback||Android||Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology / Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare|||
|COVID-19 Quarantine Monitor||contact tracing, geofencing||TBA||Government of Tamil Nadu / Pixxon AI Solutions|||
|Corona Kavach||information||Android (discontinued)||Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology / Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare|||
|GoK Direct||information||Android, iOS||Government of Kerala / Qkopy (for Android), MuseON Communications (for iOS)||Proprietary|||
|Mahakavach||contact tracing||Android||Government of Maharashtra|||
|Quarantine Watch||contact tracing||Android||Government of Karnataka|||
|Test Yourself Goa||self diagnostic||Android||Government of Goa / Innovaccer|||
|Trackcovid-19.org||self diagnostic, syndromic surveillance||Web||Trackcovid-19.org||In Use||Open||https://www.trackcovid-19.org/||NA|||
|Test Yourself Puducherry||self diagnostic||Android||Government of Puducherry / Innovaccer|||
|Israel||Hamagen (Hebrew: המגן "the shield")||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Israeli Health Ministry||in use, open source||MIT License||https://govextra.gov.il/ministry-of-health/hamagen-app/download-en/|||
|Italy||Covid Community Alert||CovidApp for citizens (proximity tracing and exposure notification, optional GPS location sharing), CovidDoc for doctors (scan patient QR code, log patient health status), web dashboard for epidemiologists (set parameters that trigger notifications)||Android, iOS, web||Coronavirus Outbreak Control||Released||Open source, unclear||TCN||https://coronavirus-outbreak-control.github.io/web/|||
|diAry “Digital Arianna”||GPS location tracing, exposure notification, awareness raising||Android, iOS||University of Urbino / DIGIT srl||Released, open beta||MIT License||GPS, own||https://covid19app.uniurb.it/||Google Play App Store|||
|Immuni ("Immune")||contact tracing, self diagnostic||Android, iOS||Bending Spoons||unknown, open?||PEPP-PT|||
|SM-COVID-19||Contact Tracing||Android, iOS||SoftMining||Released||Closed source, private specifications||ReCoVer||smcovid19
|Malaysia||Gerak Malaysia||contact tracing, border crossing registration||Android, iOS||Royal Malaysia Police / Ministry of Health||in use||Proprietary||www.gerakmalaysia.gov.my||1 million|||
|MySejahtera||information||Android, iOS||National Security Council / Ministry of Health||in use||Proprietary||mysejahtera.malaysia.gov.my/intro|||
|MyTrace||contact tracing||Android, iOS||MOSTI||in use||Proprietary||Bluetooth|||
|Netherlands||PrivateTracer||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Milvum, YES!Delft, Odyssey, Hague||MIT Licence||DP-3T||privatetracer
|North Macedonia||StopKorona!||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Ministry of Health (North Macedonia), Nextsense||Proprietary||stop
|Norway||Smittestopp||contact tracing, route tracking||Android, iOS||Simula Research Laboratory / Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI)||in use||Proprietary||https://helsenorge.no/smittestopp||April 20, 1.2m|||
|Poland||ProteGO||contact tracing||Android, iOS||authors: Jakub Lipinski, Karol Kostrzewa, Dariusz Aniszewski; supporter: Ministry of Digital Affairs of Poland||GNU GPLv3 + GNU AGPLv3||github
|Russia||"Social Monitoring"||contact tracing||under development||Infogorod / Gaskar|||
|Contact Tracer||Digital Contact Tracing and Alerting||Android||SoftTree||https://contacttracer.ru|||
|Saudi Arabia||Corona Map||Self Diagnostic Information||Android, iOS, Web||National Health Information Center||in use||https://coronamap.sa/ Apple Store Google Play|||
|Singapore||TraceTogether||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Government Digital Services agency of Government Technology Agency of Singapore||in use||compatible with open source OpenTrace / BlueTrace framework||BlueTrace||https://www.tracetogether.gov.sg/||15/5 1.4m, 27/4 1.1m, 9/4 1000k, 2/4 950k, 30/3 910k, 27/03 830k users. 26/03 735k users. 22/3 600k. 21/03 500k.|||
|South Korea||Corona 100m||contact tracing||Android (no longer available)||Bae Won-Seok / TINA3D|||
|Self-Diagnosis app||self-diagnostic||Android, iOS||Ministry of Health and Welfare||ncov
|Self-Quarantine app||isolation registration||Android, iOS||Ministry of the Interior and Safety||www
|South Africa||Covi-ID||contact tracing, health credential management||Android, iOS, Web||Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,University of Cape Town, The Delta Studio||in use||compatible with open source||PACT,GDPR,California Consumer Privacy Act, POPI||https://coviid.me/|||
|Sri Lanka||COVID Shield||Self-Health Checking, Quarantine Support, Automated Respiratory health monitoring||Android||Commonwealth Centre for Digital Health||APK file, not in play store||Proprietary||https://covid.iq.lk/covid-shield-app.php|||
|United Kingdom||Covid Symptom Study, formerly Covid Symptom Tracker||self-diagnostic||Android, iOS||King's College London, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, Zoe Global Limited||https://covid.joinzoe.com/||May 4, 3 million|||
|NHS COVID-19||multipurpose||Android, iOS||NHS Digital||www.nhs.uk|||
|United States||COVID-19 Apple / Google App||information||Android, iOS||Apple Inc. / Google LLC / U.S. Federal Government|||
|CovidSafe||self-diagnostic, contact tracing||Android, iOS||Microsoft volunteers, University of Washington||MIT License||PACT||https://covidsafe.cs.washington.edu/|||
|How We Feel||self-diagnostic||Android, iOS||Pinterest and others|||
|Private Kit: Safe Paths||contact tracing||Android, iOS||MIT||MIT License||safepaths.mit.edu|||
|Covid Watch||digital contact tracing and alerting||Android, iOS||Covid Watch||TCN||https://www.covid-watch.org/|||
|NOVID||contact tracing||Android, iOS||Expii, CMU||TCN||https://www.novid.org/|||
|Template:Country data Việt Nam||NCOVI||medical reporting||Android, iOS||VNPT, Ministry of Health Vietnam||Proprietary||MINISTRY OF HEALTH VIETNAM|||
|global||World Health Organization COVID-19 App||information||Android, iOS||World Health Organization||under development||MIT Licence||WorldHealthOrganization/app|||
|global||Coalition App||contact tracing||Android, iOS, third party hardware||Coalition Network||Live||GPL 3||Whisper Tracing Protocol||https://www.coalitionnetwork.org/|||
See also[edit source | edit]
References[edit source | edit]
- Ferretti, Luca; Wymant, Chris; Kendall, Michelle; Zhao, Lele; Nurtay, Anel; Abeler-Dörner, Lucie; Parker, Michael; Bonsall, David; Fraser, Christophe (2020-03-31). "Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing". Science: eabb6936. doi:10.1126/science.abb6936. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 7164555. PMID 32234805.
- MGZN, Startup (2020-03-31). "Startup MGZN – 'BeAware Bahrain' app officially launched by iGA".
- Mehta, Ivan (2020-03-03). "China's coronavirus detection app is reportedly sharing citizen data with police". The Next Web. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
- "Coronapp". coronaviruscolombia.gov.co (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-19.
- "CoronApp, Medellín me Cuida y CaliValle Corona al laboratorio -O cómo se hackea CoronApp sin siquiera intentarlo- : Fundación Karisma". Web.karisma.org.co. 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
- Sandra Defelipe Díaz. "Nuevas disposiciones para garantizar un mínimo de conectividad y acceso a recursos • Impacto TIC". Impactotic.co. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
- "V Česku se spouští aplikace eRouška. Staví na ochraně soukromí a upozorní, pokud jste přišli do kontaktu s nakaženým - CzechCrunch" (in Czech). Czechcrunch.cz. Retrieved 2020-04-13.
- "Bawumia launches GH COVID-19 Tracker App". www.ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
- "Why Ghana govment do virtual concert take launch COVID-19 app wey people no fit download?". BBC News Pidgin (in Pidgin). 2020-04-14. Retrieved 2020-04-14.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Nearly 40% of Icelanders are using a covid app—and it hasn't helped much". MIT Technology Review.
- "Download:Aarogya Setu App". navtechy.com.
- "Health Ministry launches phone app to help prevent spread of coronavirus". timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
- "Putrajaya unveils contact-tracing app for Covid-19, assures data is confidential". MalaysiaKini. 2020-05-03. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
- Bunyan, John (2020-05-05). "Gerak Malaysia, MySejahtera, MyTrace: Apps to get you through the MCO". Malay Mail. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
- "North Macedonia Leads Region in COVID-19 Tracing App". Balkan Insight. 2020-04-16. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
- "StopKorona". www.nextsense.com. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
- "Coronavirus: Norwegen veröffentlicht die App Smittestopp, um Infektionen aufzuspüren". watson.ch (in German). Retrieved 2020-04-19.
- Kharpal, Arjun (2020-03-26). "Use of surveillance to fight coronavirus raises concerns about government power after pandemic ends". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
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- Barbaschow, Asha. "Australia looks to 'go harder' with use of COVID-19 contact tracing app". ZDNet. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
- "Stopp Corona-App: Weiterentwicklung mit Hilfe der Zivilgesellschaft". OTS.at (in German). Retrieved 2020-04-23.
- swissinfo.ch, S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting. "Contact tracing app could be launched in Switzerland within weeks". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
- "How do you trace Covid-19 while respecting privacy?". e-Estonia. 2020-04-24. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
- Criddle, Cristina; Kelion, Leo (2020-05-07). "World split between two types of virus-tracing app". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
- "Montreal AI lab develops 'privacy-first' contact tracing app to track COVID-19 cases". CBC. 2020-05-01.
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