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COVID-19 pandemic in Canada

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COVID-19 pandemic in Canada
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Canada (Pop Density).svg
Confirmed cases per million inhabitants by province/territory
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Canada (Density).svg
Confirmed cases by province/territory
COVID-19 outbreak Canada per capita cases map.svg
COVID-19 Outbreak Deaths in Canada (Pop Density).svg
COVID-19 Outbreak Deaths in Canada (Density).svg
DiseaseCOVID-19
LocationCanada
First caseToronto, Ontario
Arrival dateJanuary 22, 2020[1]
(1 year, 1 month, 1 week and 1 day)
OriginWuhan, Hubei, China
Confirmed cases68,848[2]
Active cases31,881[3]
Recovered32,096[3]
Deaths
4,871[2]
Official website
canada.ca/coronavirus

The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after a man who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. As of May 10, 2020, there have been over 68,800 confirmed cases, 32,096 ecoveries and 4,871 deaths in the country.[2][3] The Government of Canada has released modelling anticipating 11,000–22,000 deaths over the course of the pandemic, assuming "stronger epidemic control".[4]

Most of those cases are in Canada's most populous provinces, Ontario (19,598 cases, 1,540 deaths)[5] and Quebec (36,150 cases, 2,725 deaths).[6] Confirmed cases have been reported in all of Canada's provinces and territories, with the exception of Nunavut. An additional 13 cases involve repatriated citizens from the Grand Princess cruise ship.[7][8][9][10] Until March, all cases were linked to recent travel to a country with a substantial number of cases. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5,[11] and Toronto's chief health officer announced on March 16 that there is "some evidence of community transmission".[12]

In mid March, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada's provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses, restrictions on entry, and mandatory self-isolation for travellers.[13] Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, legally requiring all travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country to self-isolate for 14 days.

Among the Canadians who contracted the virus was Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, wife of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who tested positive for the virus on March 12 after which the family went into self-isolation.[14][15] By March 28, she had recovered.[16][17] Various other politicians have gone into self-isolation due to travel or experiencing symptoms.[18]

Background and epidemiology[edit source | edit]

On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on December 31, 2019.[19][20]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[21][22] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[23][21]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic data/Canada cases by province

Timeline[edit source | edit]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic data/Canada medical cases chart

January 2020[edit source | edit]

On January 15, the federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre.[24]

On January 17, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) indicated plans were in progress "to implement signage" in the Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver airports to raise awareness of the virus, and that there would be an additional health screening question added to the electronic kiosks for passengers arriving from central China. The agency noted the overall risk to Canadians was low and there were no direct flights from Wuhan to Canada. The CBSA said it would not be, at that time, implementing extra screening measures, but would "monitor the situation closely".[25][26]

On January 23, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, said that five or six people were being monitored for signs of the virus.[27][28]

On January 25, the first identified presumptive case in Canada was a male in his 50s who travelled between Wuhan and Guangzhou before returning to Toronto on January 22.[29][1] Canada issued a travel advisory against non-essential travel to China due to the outbreak, including a regional travel advisory to avoid all travel to the province of Hubei.[30] Federal health officials stated that the risk in Canada was low.[31] Final testing conducted at the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Manitoba confirmed the presumptive case on January 27.[32]

On January 29, Minister of Foreign Affairs François-Philippe Champagne announced that an aircraft would be sent to repatriate Canadians from the areas affected by the virus in China.[33]

On January 30, the WHO declared the coronavirus was a "public health emergency of international concern".[34]

February 2020[edit source | edit]

On February 2, the Canadian Armed Forces announced that it planned to charter a plane to assist in the evacuation of Canadian nationals still in Wuhan once given authorization by China, intending to fly them to CFB Trenton for repatriation and medical screenings. Only those that had entered the country with a Canadian passport would be allowed to take this flight.[35] The first plane landed at CFB Trenton on February 7.[36] On February 21, a chartered flight of 131 Canadians who were quarantined aboard Diamond Princess after an outbreak on the cruise ship in Japan, and who all tested negative for the virus, were brought to CFB Trenton for additional screening before being transported by bus to the NAV Centre in Cornwall, Ontario to be quarantined.[37]

On February 26, Hajdu recommended that citizens stockpile food and medication, noting that it was "good to be prepared because things can change quickly [in any emergency]."[38] The recommendation faced criticism from politicians: Manitoba health minister Cameron Friesen and Ontario health minister Christine Elliott both felt that there was no need for such aggressive stockpiling, while Friesen also felt that there needed to be more coordination between the federal and provincial levels in terms of information regarding the outbreak.[39][40] Conservative Party shadow minister Matt Jeneroux opined that the suggestion incited concern and was lacking in transparency. Health Canada's website recommended against such bulk purchases (as to not strain supply chains), and explained that having supplies on hand was to "ensure you do not need to leave your home at the peak of the outbreak or if you become ill."[40][41]

March 2020[edit source | edit]

A highway sign on the Gardiner Expressway in Toronto discouraging non-essential travel

On 4 March 2020, Trudeau announced his creation of the Cabinet Committee on the federal response to the coronavirus disease, chaired by Chrystia Freeland, "to limit the spread of the virus" and to protect "the health and safety of all Canadians".[42]

Hajdu announced on March 6 that the federal government would offer $27 million in funding to 47 research groups at 19 universities to develop means of managing the outbreak. Minister of Finance Bill Morneau stated that the next federal budget would include measures in response to the outbreak, including an increase to the risk adjustment provision.[43][44][45]

On March 8, Champagne stated that at the request of the U.S. government, Canada had chartered a EuroAtlantic passenger airplane to evacuate the 237 citizens that were still aboard the cruise ship Grand Princess. They were quarantined at CFB Trenton for two weeks when the plane landed on March 10.[46][47]

Member of Parliament Anthony Housefather announced on March 9 that he was undergoing self-isolation as a precautionary measure due to possible contact with a person at an American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) conference in Washington.[48] The next day, Minister of Natural Resources Seamus O'Regan stated that he was also in self-isolation while awaiting the results of a coronavirus test. He had seen a doctor regarding a "persistent" head cold, who recommended testing, but was "not aware of contacting anyone infected".[49] The test came back negative.[50]

On March 11, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced a $1 billion response fund, including $500 million to go to provinces and territories, a $50 million contribution to the World Health Organization and an additional $275 million to fund COVID-19 research in Canada.[51] Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages Mélanie Joly stated that she had been discussing means of mitigating the outbreak's impact on the air travel industry.[52]

Also on March 11, the WHO declared the existence of a global pandemic.[34]

On March 12, after returning from a speaking engagement in London, England, Trudeau's wife Sophie Grégoire Trudeau tested positive for COVID-19. She and the Prime Minister went into self-isolation.[14][53]

On March 13, Trudeau announced that the federal government was preparing a stimulus package to address those affected by the pandemic.[54]

Also on 13 March, Parliament agreed unanimously to shut its doors for five weeks (pursuant to Standing Order 28) because of COVID-19.[55]

On March 16, Trudeau announced that new entry restrictions would be implemented shortly after midnight ET on March 18, primarily restricting entry into the country to Canadian citizens and their immediate families, and permanent residents, with the exception of the United States. On March 18, travellers from the United States were also banned in a mutual agreement with the US government (with exceptions in place for family members, essential employees who commute across the border and to ensure continued exchange of goods). Most international flights are being routed to Canada's major airports in order to enhance screening measures. Minister of Foreign Affairs François-Philippe Champagne also announced that for citizens who are still abroad, the country would provide emergency loans of up to $5,000 to cover travel costs or basic needs until they are able to return.[56][57]

On 24 March, 35 Members of Parliament met in order to discuss Bill C-13, the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act. To maintain social distancing in the face of the highly contagious respiratory illness, only 35 of the 338 members of the House of Commons convened to debate the legislation.[58] The Commons agreed "to see the application of Standing Order 17 (sic) suspended for the current sitting to allow (its) members the practice of social distancing."[59]

On March 28, Sophie Grégoire Trudeau announced her full recovery and thanked her well-wishers via social media.[16][17]

The unemployment figures for the month of March were that the economy had shed 1,000,000 jobs, pushing the official jobless rate to 7.8%.[60]

April 2020[edit source | edit]

On 2 April, Trudeau said that he foresaw the expiry of the COVID-19 crisis to occur only in July.[61]

On April 6, Trudeau introduced extra aid for the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB), saying "there are groups of people who aren't benefiting from [it] who probably should."[62][63]

Also on 6 April, the CPHO of Canada advised the use of a "non-medical face mask when shopping or using public transit" because "A non-medical mask can reduce the chance of your respiratory droplets coming into contact with others or land[ing] on surfaces". Tam offered advice on how to use "a cotton shirt combined with rubber bands" to create a DIY non-medical face mask.[64]

On April 9, the federal government released modelling that, even with strong public health measures, showed between 11,000 and 22,000 deaths over the course of the pandemic, with that number being closer to 300,000 deaths if no measures had been taken.[65] Trudeau warned that "normality as it was before will not come back full-on until we get a vaccine for this", and that residents would "have to remain vigilant for at least a year."[66][67]

The same day, Trudeau sent a letter to the provincial and territorial premiers to consult about invoking the Emergencies Act.[68] While consultation with the provinces is a required step before the Act can be triggered, the Prime Minister's Office said there was no present plan to enact it and that doing so remained a last resort.[69][70] On a conference call between Trudeau and the premiers later that day, the premiers communicated their unanimous opposition to invoking the Act.[71][72]

On April 10, the RCMP disclosed it has been asked to enforce the Quarantine Act, 2005. Penalties for violations can include a fine of up to $750,000 and imprisonment for six months.[73] One reporter said that the RCMP "could enter homes to enforce Quarantine Act orders if Canadians don’t self-isolate... [and] will do physical checks to enforce it."[74] It was reported that the Canadian Forces Intelligence Command Medical Intelligence Cell (MEDINT) has submitted reports on the outbreak in Wuhan since January 2020.[75]

On 11 April, Parliament re-convened to pass Bill C-14: COVID-19 Emergency Response Act, No. 2, and thereby adopt the CEWS. As with the previous siting on 24 March, 35 MPs stood in for the full complement of 338 members due to the need for COVID-19 social distancing. Government briefing notes detailed "a bureaucracy reluctant to put inbound China passengers in mandatory quarantine or close borders to arrivals from other (COVID-19) hotspots." Yves-Francois Blanchet supported Trudeau when he "raised health and safety concerns over holding regular meetings (in order) to respect physical distancing".[76] All that was needed to debate and to pass the bill to spend $73 billion were five hours.[77]

On April 15, Trudeau warned against premature reopening of the economy, stating that "in order to get to that point, we need to continue doing what we are doing now for many more weeks".[78]

Anti-lockdown protest in Vancouver on April 26.

On 20 April the temporary suspension of Parliament expiredTemplate:What? and it voted, over the objections of Andrew Scheer's Conservative Party of Canada, by a 22-15 margin to sit only once weekly on Wednesdays for as long as Trudeau can convince the nation that the coronavirus poses a grave health and safety risk.[79]

On 28 April, it was revealed that "79 per cent of all deaths in the country" were to that date connected with "long-term care and seniors' homes."[80][81]

On April 30, the Parliamentary Budget Officer warned that the Federal deficit for fiscal year 2020 could be in excess of $252 billion, as Canadians of every stripe rushed for the lifeboats.[82] Robyn Urback issued from her column in The Globe and Mail a blistering attack on Trudeau's Cabinet, entitled "Canadians have been gaslit on China".[83] Also on 30 April, the City of Ottawa allowed the Muslims an exemption on the noise bylaw that allowed them to use modern loudspeaker technology to amplify a five-minute recording of their call to worship because of the blanket ban on freedom of assembly during the coronavirus crisis. This followed similar exemptions in Toronto and Mississauga.[84]

May 2020[edit source | edit]

Shelves void of disinfectant and sanitiser in a Canadian supermarket.

On 1 May 2020, royal assent was granted to Bill C-15, to implement the Canada Emergency Student Benefit (CESB), after a cursory one-day consideration by 35 MPs. It established a subsidy programme for secondary school graduates and post-secondary students.[85] Students who cannot find employment or are unable to work due to the COVID-19 pandemic are eligible for CA$1,250 per month from May through August 2020.[86]

On 1 May, it came to light that Shanker Nesathurai, Chief Medical Officer of Health (CMOH) for Haldimand County and Norfolk County both of which lie on the shores of Lake Erie, had issued an order under the provincial Health Protection and Promotion Act which reads:[87]

You are not permitted to occupy your secondary residence within [my jurisdiction], which includes a rented cottage, vacation home, beach house, chalet, and/or condominium... You are not permitted to allow anyone else to occupy your Secondary Residence within [my jurisdiction].

Norfolk County Council was told that in order to remove the CMOH would require a two-thirds vote from Council along with approval from the provincial government.[87]

On May 4, Trudeau discouraged Canadians from displaying complacency due to the lifting of economic restrictions by provinces, emphasizing that it was "extremely important" for citizens to continue practicing social distancing and personal hygiene to prevent the spread, and not go out "unless you absolutely have to". He explained that although the country was on a "positive trajectory", "we are not out of the woods, however, and it requires us to continue to remain attentive and vigilant and following the instructions set out by our public health officials."[88]

On 5 May, it cam to light that the mayor of Huron-Kinloss township by Lake Huron in March 2020 ordered water service to seasonal properties shut off. Carling Township ordered its boat launch facility to remain closed, thus preventing access to anyone who needs it, including seasonal residents. Cottage-country mayors pleaded with the government of Ontario to legislate or somehow else to accept responsibility for their fate. In a memo circulated to his subordinate medical officers of health, Dr. David Williams was frightened by the advice of CMOH Nesathurai and said that[89]

My current recommendation is to not prohibit access to secondary residences through legal order, but to continue to provide communications that discourage their use.

Premier Doug Ford weighed in and said that he would not take responsibility:

You have to give a little leniency. If you put down the hammer and say you just aren’t coming, well, people aren’t going to listen. Be prepared, people are coming up on May 24.

It came to light on 8 May that 60% of COVID-19 fatalities were in Quebec, which has around 20% of the nation's population. Montreal was called "the epicentre of the pandemic in Canada."[90] Also on 8 May the Quebec government was unhappy with the federal CESB programme, because the $1,250-per-month-per-capita subsidy would hinder the ability of the province to attract student labour to the province's farms, in the absence of foreign agricultural workers who cannot travel to Quebec because the international frontiers have been closed by the federal government.[90]

Government response[edit source | edit]

Federal[edit source | edit]

Public health[edit source | edit]

The federal government's pandemic response is based on two primary documents: the Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness planning guidelines, which outlines risks and measures to address a viral disease,[91] and the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events, which includes identifying, tracking, and ensuring rapid access to medical care.[92] As of February 27, the response plan was at level 3 (escalated).[93] The federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre on January 15.[24]

On March 18, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, announced that the federal government had signed an interim order to speed up access to COVID-19 test kits that would allow provincial labs to increase testing. The test kits are made by Switzerland-based Roche Molecular Systems and ThermoFisher Scientific.[94] According to Health Canada, "an Interim Order is one of the fastest mechanisms available to the Government of Canada to help make health products available to address larger scale public health emergencies. This Interim Order provides the Minister with the flexibility to consider the urgent circumstances relating to the need for the medical device, authorizations granted by foreign regulatory authorities, or possible new uses for medical devices that are approved in Canada."[95]

Social distancing at Shoppers Drug Mart in Toronto with limited number of shoppers allowed inside the store.

Theresa Tam, Chief Public Health Officer of Canada and head of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), said on March 19 that Canada would not know for two or three weeks if country-wide social distancing efforts have curbed the spread of COVID-19.[96]

On March 19, 2020, the federal government announced that it had added to Trudeau's March 11 announcement of $275 million in funding for an additional 49 projects to bring the total to 96 research projects that will focus on developing and implementing measures to detect, manage, and reduce the transmission of COVID-19.[51][97]

On March 20, as part of the announcement on Canada's industrial strategy (see below), Trudeau stated that the National Research Council will work with small- and medium-sized companies on health research to fight the virus.[98]

On March 23, Tam began appearing in public service announcements on radio and television, urging personal hygiene, social distancing, and against unnecessary travel.[99]

On March 24, 2020, a small number of MPs from each party met in the House of Commons to vote on an $82-billion emergency spending legislation, known as Bill C-13. The passage of the bill was stalled due to the federal government's proposed clauses that gave the finance minister the right to spend money and raise taxes without the approval of Parliament until December 31, 2021. After criticism from the Official Opposition over the minority government's "power grab" which was considered undemocratic, a revised bill was agreed upon the next day that would permit the government six months of special spending powers until September 30, 2020, with oversight from a Parliamentary committee.[100][101][102][103][104] The House of Commons' Health and Finance committees began holding weekly virtual meetings during the pandemic.[105][106]

On April 6, Tam began to suggest that the use of non-medical face masks in public could be an "additional measure" to "protect others around you in situations where physical distancing is difficult to maintain", but that this is not proven to protect the wearer, and is considered complimentary to all existing health guidance issued thus far.[107]

Long-term care homes[edit source | edit]

Long-term care homes have been impacted heavily by the pandemic; on April 13, Tam reported that at least half of COVID-19 deaths in Canada had been linked to long-term care homes (with the exact number varying by province), and that "these deaths will continue to increase, even as the epidemic growth rate slows down.[108][109] Tam cited factors such as outside visitors, communal living spaces, and staff being transferred among multiple facilities, as particular vulnerabilities.[110][111] The pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing staffing issues at some facilities, including underpaid staff, and being understaffed in general.[112][108][113] On April 28, Tam stated that as many of 79 percent of Canada's COVID-19 fatalities occurred in long-term care homes.[114]

Health Canada has issued recommendations for long-term care homes, encouraging them to restrict outside visitors and volunteers, restrict employees from being transferred between multiple facilities, provide personal protective equipment, enforce physical distancing during meals, screen staff and essential visitors, On April 15, Trudeau announced that the federal government planned to provide additional pay to long-term care workers.[115][116]

Travel and entry restrictions[edit source | edit]

On March 14, Canada recommended against any international travel, and advised those returning from outside of Canada, except for essential workers (such as flight crew), to self-isolate for 14 days.[117] The Quarantine Act was invoked by Hajdu on March 26, making self-isolation a legal mandate for travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country, and also prohibiting those who are symptomatic from using public transit as transport to their place of self-isolation, and prohibiting self-isolation in settings where they may come in contact with those who are vulnerable (people with pre-existing conditions and the elderly).[118]

Since March 16, only Canadian citizens and their immediate families, permanent residents, and U.S. citizens are allowed to enter the country. The only exceptions are flight crews, diplomats, and trade and commerce. Travellers showing COVID-19 symptoms are not allowed to board flights into Canada, regardless of their citizenship.[56][57] International flights to Canada from outside the Caribbean, Mexico, and the U.S. were instructed to land at either Calgary International Airport, Montréal–Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport, or Vancouver International Airport.[56][57]

Since March 20, Canada and the United States have temporarily restricted all non-essential travel across their border, while maintaining supply chains between both countries;[119][120] On April 16, Trudeau stated that the Canada/U.S. border restrictions would remain in place "for a significant amount of time";[121] the next day, it was reported that Canada and the United States had agreed to extend their entry restrictions, which were to expire on April 21, for an additional 30 days beyond that date.[122]

Since March 30, individuals showing COVID-19 symptoms must be refused boarding on domestic flights (10 seats or more) and passenger trains. This excludes buses and intercity passenger rail services.[123] Since April 20, all travellers are required to wear non-medical face masks while departing and arriving on air travel, including during security screenings. Those who do not comply will be prevented from proceeding.[124]

Governmental cancellations[edit source | edit]

A First Ministers' meeting scheduled for March 12 and 13 was cancelled after Trudeau and his wife Sophie Grégoire self-isolated.[14] The Canadian House of Commons was suspended between March 14 and April 20, immediately after passing the new North American free trade deal. The federal budget, previously scheduled for March 20, was also suspended.[125]

Bank of Canada rate changes[edit source | edit]

The Bank of Canada has twice lowered its overnight rate target by 50 basis points, first to 1.25 percent on March 4, and then to 0.75 percent on March 13, citing the "negative shocks to Canada's economy arising from the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent sharp drop in oil prices.[126][127]

On March 27, the Bank lowered the rate a third time to 0.25 percent, citing "serious consequences for Canadians and for the economy" due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[128] The Bank also launched a program to "alleviate strains in the short-term funding markets" and another program to acquire Government of Canada securities at a minimum of $5 billion per week.[129]

Federal aid[edit source | edit]

On March 18, the federal government announced an $82-billion response package with a variety of measures.[130] On March 25, the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act received royal assent from Governor General Julie Payette.[131] The measures in this first package included:

  • Canada Child Benefit (CCB): Payments for the 2019–20 year were increased by $300 per child.
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) credit: The maximum annual GST credit payment amount for the 2019–20 year was doubled.
  • Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB): This new benefit provided a taxable benefit of $2,000 a month for up to four months for those who had lost their job, were sick, quarantined, or taking care of someone sick with COVID-19, as well as working parents staying home to take care of their kids.
  • Canada Student Loans: A six-month moratorium was placed on repayment.
  • Temporary business wage subsidy: Eligible small employers received a three-month 10 percent wage subsidy.
  • Tax flexibility: The income tax filing deadline was also extended from April 30, 2020 to June 1, 2020. Tax payments were deferred to September 2020.

The CERB launched on April 6, and within one week, nearly 3.5 million Canadians applied for this benefit;[132] this grew to 7.12 million by April 24.[133] On April 15, Trudeau announced that the CERB would be extended to workers making up to $1,000 per month, and that the government planned to work with the provinces to implement salary top-ups for essential workers who make less than $2,500 per month.[134]

The Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS) was announced on April 1, an expanded version of the temporary business wage subsidy. The Parliament reconvened on April 11 to pass the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act, No. 2 on division. It implemented the CEWS—which allows eligible companies to receive a 75% subsidy on each of their employees' wages (up to their first $58,700) for 12 weeks retroactive to March 15.[135]

Trudeau introduced new financial aid programs on April 10, including the Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) which offers loans, interest-free until the end of 2022, of up to $40,000 for small- and medium-sized businesses[136][137] The CEBA was expanded on April 16 to make more businesses eligible.[how?]

The Canada Emergency Student Benefit (CESB) was announced by Trudeau on April 22. It would provide $1,250 per month from May to August to eligible postsecondary students. Students with disabilities or taking care of someone else would receive $1,750 per month.[138]

On April 30, Parliamentary Budget Officer Yves Giroux issued a report projecting the federal deficit for fiscal year 2020 could be in excess of $252 billion, based on nearly $146 billion in spending on federal aid measures.[82]

Public service disruptions[edit source | edit]

Leslie Street empty at 9:00 a.m. on a weekday in Toronto

On March 16, the Treasury Board urged Federal public servants to work from home if possible. No date was provided for when this provision should end.[139]

Industrial strategy[edit source | edit]

On March 20, the government announced a plan to ramp up production of medical equipment, switching assembly lines to produce ventilators, masks and other personal protective gear. Companies will be able to access funds through the government's Strategic Innovation Fund. The PM stated that Canadian medical supply firms Thornhill Medical, Medicom and Spartan Bioscience were looking to expand production. In order to address shortages and supply-chain disruption, Canada passed emergency legislation that waived-patent protection, giving the government, and companies or organizations that it selects, the right to produce patented products without permission from the patent holder.[140] According to Innovation, Science and Industry minister Navdeep Bains, "the country's entire industrial policy will be refocused to prioritize the fight against COVID-19".[141][142]

Provincial and territorial[edit source | edit]

Restrictions imposed by provincial and territorial governments
Province or territory State of emergency declared Gatherings banned Border status[lower-alpha 1] Stay-at-home ordered Closures ordered Sources
Schools Daycares Sit-down restaurants[lower-alpha 2] Bars
Template:Country data Alberta Alberta March 17 Over 15 Open No Yes Yes Yes Yes [143]
Template:Country data British Columbia British Columbia March 18 Over 50 Open No Yes No Yes Yes [144][145][146]
Template:Country data Manitoba Manitoba March 20 Over 10 Screened with regional restrictions[lower-alpha 3] No Yes Yes Partial; Patio reopened with reduced capacity as of May 4 Yes [149][150]
Template:Country data New Brunswick New Brunswick March 19 Over 10 Restricted No Yes Yes Yes Yes [151]
Template:Country data Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador March 18 Over 5 Restricted No Yes Yes Yes Yes [152][153][154]
Template:Country data Northwest Territories Northwest Territories March 18 All gatherings Restricted No Yes No No No [155][156]
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia March 22 Over 5 Screened No Yes Yes Yes Yes [157][158]
Template:Country data Nunavut Nunavut March 18 All gatherings Restricted[lower-alpha 4] No Yes Yes Yes Yes [159]
Template:Country data Ontario Ontario March 17 Over 5 Open No Yes Yes Yes Yes [160][161][162]
Template:Country data Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island March 16 Over 5 Restricted No Yes Yes Yes Yes [163]
Template:Country data Quebec Quebec March 12 All gatherings Regional restrictions[lower-alpha 5] No Yes Yes Yes Yes [164][165][166][167]
Template:Country data Saskatchewan Saskatchewan March 18 Over 10 Regional restrictions[lower-alpha 6] No Yes No Yes Yes [170][171][172]
Template:Country data Yukon Yukon March 18 Over 10 Screened No Yes No Yes Yes [173][174]
  1. Refers to status of internal borders only. Although the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees broad mobility rights to Canadian citizens, during a state of emergency provincial and territorial governments can effectively restrict or deny entry due primarily their lawful authority to, at their discretion, refuse any person permission to use their roads:
    Open: No restrictions on entry from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Screened: Health checks and/or self-isolation mandatory for persons entering from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Restricted: Entry prohibited for non-residents without a valid reason to enter the province or territory.
    Regional: Entry restricted to (a) specific region(s) of the province or territory.
  2. For most provinces, takeout and delivery orders are still permitted even though dine-in section is closed.
  3. Effective April 17, travel into northern Manitoba is restricted to residents of its communities and essential work, and those entering the province must self-isolate for 14 days.[147][148]
  4. Nunavut is not accessible from the rest of Canada by road. Its entry restrictions are therefore effectively enforced with respect to prospective non-resident air travelers by federal transportation officers serving at airports from which flights depart for the territory. Returning Nunavummiut and others permitted to enter the territory are required to isolate at designated hotels in the city of departure for fourteen days prior to boarding a flight.
  5. Entry restricted to locals and essential workers in 9 regions out of 18, and parts of 3 other regions.
  6. Since April 24, non-essential travel to and from Northern Saskatchewan has been restricted.[168][169]

States of emergency[edit source | edit]

On March 12, Quebec declared a public health emergency, requiring international travellers to self-isolate for 14 days and banning gatherings of 250 people. The ban has been extended to all gatherings outside workplaces and retail.[175]

On March 16, Prince Edward Island declared a public health emergency. Alberta and Ontario declared emergencies on March 17, followed by British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan and Yukon on March 18. New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia declared emergencies on March 19, March 20, and March 22 respectively.[176]

These emergencies allowed provinces to ban gatherings and require international travellers to self-isolate. On March 25, mandatory self-isolation was imposed federally, making it a legal requirement for all provinces who had not done so already.[177]

New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and have all restricted entry through interprovincial borders, prohibiting the entry of non-residents without valid reason. Quebec has additionally restricted travel into 9 of its 18 regions and parts of 3 other regions. The borders of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador are being screened, while also requiring travellers to self-isolate for 14 days upon entering the province.[178]

Schools and universities[edit source | edit]

Let's Work Together Stop the Spread sign at a school in the GTA.

On March 12, the Ontario government announced that all public schools will be closed from March 14 until at least April 5.[179] This was followed by all provinces and territories closing schools, and the closures being repeatedly extended or made indefinite. Governments have assured graduating students that they will be able to graduate, and classes have moved online.

Laurentian University in Greater Sudbury, was the first to voluntarily suspended classes and moved to online instruction on March 12.[180] This was quickly followed by many other universities in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and Manitoba voluntarily closing on the 12th and 13th. Initially, some universities in British Columbia continued while cancelling classes with more than 250 students due to the gatherings ban. All provinces have since closed down post-secondary institutions.

Due to the exceptional circumstances of the closures, various universities have given their students the option of receiving a pass/fail grade instead of a numeric or letter grade. The University of Alberta made this grading scheme mandatory, which received some backlash from the student body.[181]

Business closures[edit source | edit]

Playground in Port Moody, British Columbia, closed off with caution tape. A sign indicates the playground is closed because of COVID-19.

Bars, restaurants, cinemas, and other businesses have been ordered closed by provinces, territories, and municipalities across the country. Initially, some jurisdictions allowed restaurants or bars to stay open with reduced capacity and social distancing. Takeout and delivery orders are largely still permitted.[178] Jurisdictions have differed on daycare closures. In particular, British Columbia and Saskatchewan have faced criticism for allowing daycares to remain open while closing schools, bars, and restaurants.[182]

Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan have mandated the closure of all businesses not deemed essential by the provinces. Essential businesses include grocery stories, takeout and delivery restaurants, pharmacies, transportation, manufacturing, food production, energy, and healthcare.[183][184][185]

Liquor and cannabis stores have largely remained open across the country, with governments reversing their closure orders due to concerns surrounding alcohol withdrawal syndrome.[186][187]

Aid programs[edit source | edit]

Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Manitoba all offered one-time payments that aimed to bridge the gap before the implementation of the federal Canada Emergency Response Benefit. Quebec's Temporary Aid for Workers Program offers up to four weeks of payments for those who do not qualify for federal assistance. Prince Edward Island also provides payments to those who have kept their jobs but work reduced hour.[188]

Many provinces and territories have increased payments for those already receiving income supports.

Courts[edit source | edit]

Courts across the country instituted measures to reduce public contact, while maintaining access to the courts.[189] The Supreme Court of Canada has closed the building to public tours, while maintaining the ability to file documents for cases electronically. It has also adjourned appeals which were to be heard in March, to dates in June.[190] Other courts have prioritised the cases which will be heard, generally giving priority to ongoing criminal trials and trials in family and child protection matters, while adjourning most pending cases to later dates.

First Nations[edit source | edit]

On March 19, the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in northern Manitoba restricted entry to essential travellers, and Chief David Monias said the Sayisi Dene and others are doing the same. The Council of the Haida Nation said it was discouraging all non-resident travel to the islands "for the time being."[191]

Economic impact[edit source | edit]

Panic buying: empty toilet paper shelves on March 12, 2020 at an Atlantic Superstore in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Social distancing markers at Whole Foods Market in Toronto.

Most event cancellations occurred on or after March 12, when several provinces implemented bans on gatherings of 250 or more people.[citation needed] The leadership contests of the Conservative Party of Canada, Green Party of British Columbia, Quebec Liberal Party and Parti Québécois were postponed.[192][193][194][195]

Stock market[edit source | edit]

The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) was affected strongly by the 2020 stock market crash, with an overall 12% decline on March 12 of the S&P/TSX Composite Index, its biggest single-day decline since 1940, twice triggering market circuit breakers.[196][197] The week of March 9–13 was the TSX's worst week on record.[198] The fall, which capped two weeks of steady declines, was exacerbated by an oil output war between Russia and Saudi Arabia.[199]

The S&P/TSX Composite Index lost another 10% on March 16, causing trading to halt a 3rd time in a span of eight days.[200][201] The index closed at 12,360.40 points on March 16, down 31% from before the crash at 17,944 recorded on February 20. By April 17, the index had recovered some of its losses, closing at 14,359.98, still down 20% from the February 20 close.[202]

Health and travel insurance[edit source | edit]

At least one insurance carrier announced that it was cutting back on insurance coverage for Canadians abroad. On March 15, 2020, RSA Canada announced that trip cancellation, interruption, and emergency medical coverage was now limited to 10 days from the federal government's announcement on March 13, 2020, urging Canadians not to travel internationally.[203]

Layoffs[edit source | edit]

WestJet has frozen all hiring and is offering voluntary departure packages to employees, with the goal of cutting 12% of its total capacity.[204] Air Canada announced on March 20 that it will lay off 5,000 of its staff.[205] On March 20, the federal government announced a dramatic increase in applications to unemployment insurance, with over 500,000 Canadians applying in a single week (an 18-fold increase).[206] By March 22, the figure was adjusted to nearly one million Canadians applying in a single week.[207] And by April 2, jobless claims in Canada reached around 2.13 million, representing roughly 11% of the labour force.[208] On April 6, the Canadian government said that 3.18 million Canadians applied for unemployment benefits, with around 795,000 applying on April 6 alone.[209] The survey from the Angus Reid Institute found that 44% of Canadian households have experienced some type of job loss.[210][211] On April 13, the number of applications for emergency benefits due to the pandemic reached 6 million — this number "includes those who applied through the employment insurance (EI) process."[212]

Business practices[edit source | edit]

Closed movie theatre in Surrey

Initially, fast casual restaurants such as Starbucks and Tim Hortons maintained service, but suspended the allowable use of reusable cups by patrons. Tim Hortons simultaneously altered its popular "Roll up the Rim to Win" promotion to exclude physical cups (the chain had already announced its intent to increase its use of digital components for the promotion in an effort to combat litter).[213][214][215] In compliance with or ahead of local mandates, some national restaurant chains (including those aforementioned) have since suspended in-store dining and seating, in favour of take-out and delivery service only. McDonald's Canada stated on March 22 that it would close its dining rooms entirely at most locations, and only offer drive-through and delivery.[216][217][218][219]

Shopify cancelled its Shopify Unite conference, which was scheduled to occur from May 6 to 9 in Toronto.[220]

The major movie theatre chains Cineplex Entertainment and Landmark initially restricted the capacity of their individual cinema auditoriums by half (with Landmark using its reserved seating systems to enforce social distancing between patrons, and providing fresh bags and cups for popcorn and soft drinks upon refills rather than reusing them).[221] Both chains have since closed all locations until further notice.[222][223]

Airline sector[edit source | edit]

WestJet planes grounded at Edmonton International Airport

Air Canada cancelled all flights to Beijing, Shanghai, and Rome; and cut back on flights to Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Seoul.[224]

WestJet announced on March 16 that all international flights, including to the US, will be suspended by March 22.[225]

On March 18, Porter Airlines announced that it would suspend all flights until June.[226]

Also on March 18, Air Canada announced that by April 1 all international flights will be suspended, with only six overseas airports and thirteen United States airports being served.[227] The six connections at London, Paris, Frankfurt, Delhi, Tokyo and Hong Kong airports would allow Canadians to return home. These measures are expected to last until at least April 30.[227]

Air Canada announced because of the Canadian Emergency Wage Subsidy, it would re-hire backdated to 15 March 16,000 airline staff that were laid off due to the pandemic.[228]

On April 21, Air Canada announced a suspension of all scheduled flights to the U.S. from April 27 to May 22, "subject to any further government restrictions beyond that date."[229][230]

Tourism[edit source | edit]

Almost all tourist sites have been closed or reduced due to the pandemic.[231][failed verification]

Casinos and gaming[edit source | edit]

Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan have ordered the closure of all casinos until further notice. Société des casinos du Québec also closed all four of its casinos.[232][233][234][235][236] Great Canadian Gaming voluntarily closed its 10 locations in BC (prior to the mandated closure), and 3 in the Atlantic provinces.[237][238] The Atlantic Lottery and Loto-Québec also suspended and disabled their video lottery terminals starting March 16.[239][240]

Sports[edit source | edit]

All professional and university sports leagues with Canadian teams have suspended their seasons from March 13 onward. This includes the National Hockey League,[241] the Canadian Hockey League,[242] Hockey Canada,[243][244] the Canadian Junior Hockey League,[245] U Sports ice hockey,[246] the National Basketball Association,[247][248] Major League Baseball,[249][250] Major League Soccer,[251] the Canadian Premier League,[252] the Canadian Soccer Association,[253] and the CONCACAF Champions League.[254] On March 18, the CHL's leagues announced that they would cancel the remainder of their regular seasons. All playoffs and the 2020 Memorial Cup were subsequently cancelled March 23.[255][256] On April 8, the National Lacrosse League also cancelled the rest of their regular season, with postponement of the playoffs.[257]

As of March 19, the Canadian Football League is limiting player access to training facilities and considering contingency plans for the 2020 CFL season.[258]

Cancelled international sports events in Canada include the 2020 World Women's Curling Championship (originally scheduled to be held from March 14 to 22 in Prince George),[259] the 2020 World Figure Skating Championships (March 16 to 22, Montreal),[260] the 2020 Women's Ice Hockey World Championships (March 31 to April 10, Halifax and Truro, Nova Scotia),[261] and the 2020 Sprint Tour (March 14 to 15, Quebec City) and 2020 World Cup Finals (March 20 to 21, Canmore) of the FIS Cross-Country World Cup.[262] Cancelled national competitions include the 2020 Arctic Winter Games (March 15 to 21, Whitehorse)[263] and Nordiq Canada's Canadian Ski Championships (March 25 to April 2, Vernon, British Columbia).[264]

On April 11, Tennis Canada cancelled the women's WTA Tour half of the 2020 Canadian Open (sponsored as Rogers Cup), pursuant to a request by the Quebec government for all cultural events, festivals, and sporting events be cancelled through August. Per an alternating cycle with the men's ATP Tour half of the event and Toronto, Montreal will host the women's tournament in 2021. Tennis Canada stated that it would still tentatively hold the men's tournament in Toronto, unless the ATP extends its suspension of play, or the Ontario or Toronto government order otherwise.[265][266]

Media and arts[edit source | edit]

Many news websites have dropped their paywalls for material related to the pandemic, including The Globe and Mail and all Postmedia sites.[267][268] Postmedia subsequently dropped its paywalls for all content for April 2020.[269]

Public broadcaster CBC temporarily replaced its local evening newscasts with a simulcast from CBC News Network combining content from local and national journalists from across the country,[270] a decision that was criticized by the Premier of Prince Edward Island Dennis King, as CBC News: Compass is the province's only local daily television news program.[271] By the end of March, however, local news service began to be restored in most markets.[272]

CBC Radio One also temporarily suspended production of its arts and entertainment magazine series Q, in order to provide an extended daily broadcast of its morning news series The Current,[272] while CBC Music shifted to programming exclusively Canadian music to help support artists impacted by the cancellations of concert tours and the Juno Awards. CBC Television also launched a number of special short-run series during the pandemic to deal with disruptions in its regular schedule, including Movie Night in Canada to broadcast feature films in lieu of Hockey Night in Canada; What're You At? with Tom Power, a Sunday evening talk show which will see Tom Power remotely interview both celebrities and ordinary Canadians;[273] and Hot Docs at Home, a Thursday night series which will broadcast several feature documentary films which had been slated to premiere at the cancelled Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival.[274]

Cancelled cultural events include such awards ceremonies as the 2020 Juno Awards, scheduled to have been in Saskatoon on March 15,[275][276] the 8th Canadian Screen Awards (Toronto, March 29),[276][275] the 15th Canadian Folk Music Awards (Charlottetown, April 3 and 4),[277] the Artis Awards (Montreal, May 10)[278] and the 22nd Quebec Cinema Awards (Montreal, June 7).[279]

Festival cancellations or postponements include the Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival, originally planned in Toronto from April 30 to May 10,[280] the Inside Out Film and Video Festival, originally planned for late May but now rescheduled to October,[281] and Montreal's Festival international du film sur l'art [fr], which will now be presented online.[282] CBC Radio's Canada Reads book competition, scheduled for the week of March 16, was also postponed.[283]

Canada's national museums in Ottawa cancelled all scheduled events and exhibits, and closed indefinitely on March 14.[284] Almost all local museums, art galleries, theatres, and other performance venues across the country have also closed indefinitely.[285][286][287][288][289]

The National Arts Centre launched #CanadaPerforms, a $100,000 fund that would pay Canadian musicians $1,000 to perform a livestreamed home concert on Facebook during the crisis. The initiative launched on March 19 with a concert by Jim Cuddy, with other artists already scheduled to perform including Serena Ryder, William Prince, Irish Mythen, Erin Costelo and Whitehorse.[290]

The eighth season of the Global series Big Brother Canada abruptly ended production on March 24, 2020 due to the Ontario government's mandatory 14-day closure of all non-essential workplaces. There was no winner, with the prize money subsequently donated to charities responding to COVID-19.[291]

On April 26, nearly all Canadian television networks in both English and French collaborated on the multiplatform special Stronger Together, Tous Ensemble, which featured home-recorded messages and musical performances from Canadian celebrities, as a benefit for Food Banks Canada.[292] The special attracted 11.5 million viewers, becoming the most-watched non-sports broadcast in the history of Canadian television,[293] and concluded with the broadcast premiere of a cover of Bill Withers's song "Lean on Me", recorded by an ad hoc supergroup of Canadian musicians as a fundraiser for the Canadian Red Cross.[294] Participating artists included Bryan Adams, Jann Arden, Justin Bieber, Michael Bublé, Fefe Dobson, Scott Helman, Shawn Hook, Avril Lavigne, Geddy Lee, Marie-Mai, Sarah McLachlan, Johnny Orlando, Josh Ramsay, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Tyler Shaw, Walk Off the Earth and Donovan Woods.[295]

Cases by province or territory[edit source | edit]

Alberta[edit source | edit]

In Alberta, as of April 23, there is a total of 3,720 cases and 68 deaths.[296][297] There have been 1,357 recoveries from the virus in the province.[298] The majority of cases were in the Calgary zone, which had 2,633 cases as of April 22.[297] The first case, which was confirmed on March 5, was a tourist, who had been repatriated from the Grand Princess to Calgary.[299][300] As of March 16, cases have been reported in every Alberta zone.[301] Community transmission was first reported on March 15, but at that time limited to seven people,[302][303] six of whom attended a dental conference held from March 5 to 7 at the Vancouver Convention Centre.[303][304] The first death caused by the virus in Alberta occurred on March 19.[305]

At their March 25 briefing Hinshaw said that, the "significant case numbers"—which included 61 new cases, of which 33 were believed to be by community transmission, 20 patients hospitalized, and 8 in ICU—"underscore the seriousness of the situation that we face."[306][307][308] Alberta's Chief Medical Officer, Deena Hinshaw, announced on March 26, that Alberta labs were conducting 3,000 tests a day.[309][308] By April 7, 67,117 tests had been conducted in Alberta.[296]

As of April 17, 2020, 358 cases were connected directly with the High River plant of meat processor Cargill. The number represented 15% of infections in the province.[310] The company temporarily closed this plant on April 20, 2020 because the operation was linked to nearly 500 cases of COVID-19 by that time. All of the 2,100 employees were recommended for virus testing.[311]

British Columbia[edit source | edit]

Deserted exterior of Canada Place in Vancouver.

As of April 30, 2020, British Columbia has reported 2,087 cases, 1,305 recoveries, and 109 deaths.[312] Additionally, the provincial government has announced that 83,425 people have been tested for the virus in British Columbia as of April 30.[312]

The first case in British Columbia was reported on January 28. The person had returned from Wuhan and began experiencing symptoms on January 26.[313] The first case in BC's Interior Health region was reported on February 14. The person had recently returned from China.[314] The first case in the Fraser Health region was reported on February 20. This was also the first BC case where the person had travelled to or from Iran.[315]

The first two cases in the Lynn Valley Care Centre in North Vancouver were reported on March 7. One resident and one staff member were diagnosed.[53] The staff member is now thought to be Canada's first case of community transmission.[316] This care centre became Canada's worst outbreak, with 16 cases to date, and may be linked to subsequent cases in another seniors' home and a hospital in North Vancouver.[317]

On March 9, the Lynn Valley outbreak resulted in the first coronavirus death in Canada, by a man in his 80s with pre-existing health conditions. Three more deaths at the centre were reported on March 16. An additional 2 deaths were reported at the centre on March 17,[318][319][320] while another was reported on March 19.[321]

The seventh death was reported to have occurred "in [a] hospital in the Fraser Health region".[322]

BC's first two cases linked to the Grand Princess were also reported on March 7. They were hospitalized.[53]

Manitoba[edit source | edit]

As of May 10, 2020, Manitoba has reported 287 cases, with the first three reported on March 12.[323] There have been 247 recoveries and 7 deaths.[323] All of Winnipeg's cases were identified after March 12.[316] As of May 10, 30,647 tests have been completed.[323] The rate of testing was increased to more than 500 tests a day on March 14.[324]

In Manitoba's first case, the person had returned to Winnipeg from the Philippines, and self-isolated at home.[325] All subsequent cases were found in Winnipeg.[326]

New Brunswick[edit source | edit]

As of April 27, 2020, New Brunswick has reported 118 cases, with the first one reported on March 11. There have been 112 recoveries, no deaths.[327] There have been a total of 13,196 tests completed as of April 27.[327]

In New Brunswick's first case, the person had returned to southeastern New Brunswick from France, and self-isolated at home.[328] The second case was a close contact.[328]

On March 15, the province reported four more presumptive cases in the central part of the province.[329]

On March 16, New Brunswick confirmed one more case, and announced one more presumptive case, making 2 confirmed cases and 5 presumptive in total.[330]

On March 17, an eighth case was announced. This is the first child in the province to become infected.[citation needed]

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit source | edit]

As of April 24, 2020, there have been 256 cases confirmed in Newfoundland and Labrador, with 207 recoveries and 3 deaths. As of that date, 7,134 people have been tested in total.[331]

On March 14, a presumptive case was announced in the province.[332]

On March 24, a woman was arrested in Corner Brook for violating public health emergency orders by refusing to stay at home after she returned from a trip outside the province.[333]

By March 25, the number of cases had risen to 67, 44 of them associated with an outbreak at a funeral home, which occurred between March 15 and 17.[334][335]

Northwest Territories[edit source | edit]

As of April 23, 2020, there have been 5 confirmed cases in the territory, with all 5 cases recovered. 1605 tests have been conducted, with 1,600 negative results.[336]

On March 21, the Northwest Territories reported its first case of COVID-19; the individual had travelled to British Columbia and Alberta before returning home to Yellowknife.[337]

Nova Scotia[edit source | edit]

As of April 25, 2020, Nova Scotia has reported 873 confirmed cases, with 439 recoveries and 24 deaths.[338] There have been 24,521 negative test results.[338] On March 15, 2020, three presumptive cases in Nova Scotia were announced. All three were travel-related.[339]

On March 29, a Halifax woman was fined $697.50, and had her vehicle seized by police after she was found in a park despite Nova Scotia having closed parks and beaches to the public under its emergency measures act.[340]

Nunavut[edit source | edit]

As of May 4, Nunavut is the only territory in Canada with no confirmed COVID-19 cases after a previously confirmed case was deemed a false positive on May 4.[341][342] This false positive case was a resident of Pond Inlet, first announced on April 30; a rapid response team was dispatched to the community.[343][344][345]

Ontario[edit source | edit]

As of April 26, 2020, Ontario, the province with the first case in the country, has reported 14,856 cases with 8,525 recoveries and 892 fatalities.[346] In total, 242,188 people have been tested, with 5,001 of those tests still under investigation.[346]

The first case in Canada, was reported on January 25 in Toronto. The person had recently returned from Wuhan, China, and had taken precautions in returning. After admission to hospital, the person made a full recovery by February 23.[316] Further cases imported from other countries were reported later in February, with the first case from Iran reported on February 26, Egypt on February 27, Grand Princess Cruise on March 7, the United States on March 7, France and Germany[347] on March 8, Switzerland on March 10, and Austria on March 11.[316]

On March 12, Sophie Gregoire Trudeau, the wife of Canada's prime minister Justin Trudeau, became Canada's first UK-linked case. Both she and the prime minister started self-isolation.[316]

Ontario reported its first death on March 17, a man in his 70s in Barrie, Ontario.[348] A second death, a man in his 50s in Milton, Ontario, was reported on March 19.[349]

Prince Edward Island[edit source | edit]

As of April 23, 2020, Prince Edward Island has reported 26 confirmed cases of the virus, with 24 recoveries.[350] As of April 22, 2,371 tests have come back negative and 109 are currently under investigation.[350] On March 14, 2020, the first confirmed case in Prince Edward Island was announced, a woman in her 50s who had returned from a trip on a cruise ship on March 7.[351] By March 26, there were five cases, all of which had been travel related, i.e., been contracted while persons were abroad.[352] To date, there was no re-transmission reported in the island province.

Quebec[edit source | edit]

As of April 24, 2020, Quebec has reported 22,616 confirmed cases of the virus and 1,340 deaths, more than all of Canada's other provinces and territories combined.[353]

The province confirmed its first case on February 28—a 41-year-old woman from Montreal who had returned from Iran on the 24th on a flight from Doha, Qatar.[354][355][356] She was transferred to Jewish General Hospital on March 3, and released on March 4;[357][358] since then, she has remained in isolation at her home in Verdun.[359] On March 5, the Ministry of Health and Social Services announced a second presumptive case, involving a man who had travelled to India in February, and was being treated in Mont-Laurier for symptoms similar to coronavirus. On March 4, the person was transferred to Jewish General Hospital, where he was diagnosed with pneumonia.[360] Hours afterwards, a third presumptive case was confirmed, involving a woman who had returned from France on March 3.[361][362]

A fourth case was confirmed March 8, involving a woman from Montérégie, Longueuil who had recently returned from a cruise that had visited Mexico.[363] On March 10, authorities stated that the person had used public transit between February 24 and March 6, and had travelled through the Berri-UQAM, Champ-de-Mars, and Longueuil metro stations.[364][365] Premier François Legault initially classified the threat posed by the virus as being "weak".[366]

On March 9, a Montreal resident who had recently returned from Ireland was reported as a fifth presumptive case.[367][368][369] Four new cases were confirmed on March 11, including one who had returned from Caribbean and Miami, a man who had returned from the Dominican Republic,[370] a person who had returned from Italy, and a resident of Montreal who had returned from international travel.[371][372]

By March 18, 94 confirmed cases had been reported in Quebec.[373] The province also had its first death.[374]

On March 20, a woman who tested positive for COVID-19 was arrested for being out in Quebec City's Limoilou neighbourhood despite being under a quarantine order; this was the first time that this type of warrant was executed.[375]

Saskatchewan[edit source | edit]

As of May 6, 2020, there have been 512 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 312 recoveries, and 6 deaths in Saskatchewan. Chief Medical Officer Saqib Shahab announced the first presumptive case of in the province on March 12, a person in their 60s that had recently returned from Egypt, who was tested on March 9, and was in self-isolation at their home.[9] Two cases involved attendees of the aforementioned dental conference in Vancouver.[376]

11 Saskatchewan health care employees tested positive after attending a physicians' bonspiel at a curling club in Edmonton on the week of March 11.[377] On March 28, Saskatchewan announced 18 cases involving attendees of a snowmobile rally at Christopher Lake on March 14.[378][379] Saskatchewan reported its first deaths from COVID-19 on March 30. Both people were in their 70s and were from separate parts of the province.[380]

By April 6, the number of new cases had begun to dwindle, and the number of new recoveries regularly exceeded or equalled the number of new cases.[381][382][383][384][385] This prompted Premier Scott Moe to announce on April 13 that he would begin to explore plans to gradually restore normal commerce and service (with the first phase having begun on May 4),[386] although some restrictions, especially those on public gatherings, are to remain in effect for the foreseeable future.[387][388]

However, by late-April, the province began to see a major spike of active cases in its northern region, centered upon the remote village of La Loche, with at least 29 traced to a case from northern Alberta.[389][390] On May 5, Theresa Tam stated that this outbreak was concerning due to the region's remote communities and indigenous population.[391]

Yukon[edit source | edit]

As of April 23, 2020, Yukon has reported 11 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 8 recoveries. 881 tests have been completed, with 862 confirmed negative and 8 still under investigation.[392]

On March 22, 2020, Premier Sandy Silver and the Chief Medical Officer, Brendan Hanley, announced that Yukon had its first cases of coronavirus, a couple who had attended a convention in the United States and then returned home to Whitehorse. They developed symptoms upon their return and immediately sought medical assistance. They have self-isolated and have meticulously followed all public health directions.[393]

COVID-19 testing[edit source | edit]

COVID-19 testing can be used to track the prevalence and spread, to diagnose individuals for treatment, to identify infections for isolation and contact tracing, to screen at-risk populations, to clear exposed healthcare workers to return to work, and to identify individuals with potential immunity. The World Health Organization says that jurisdictions should aim to test every suspected case of COVID-19.[394] Since health care is under provincial jurisdiction, almost all testing is conducted by the provinces and territories rather than the federal government. On April 23, Trudeau identified broader testing as key to reopening the country, mentioning the target of 60,000 tests per day set by Dr. Theresa Tam, but warned that up to 120,000 per day may be required.[395] As of late April, approximately 20,000 tests per day were being performed in Canada.[396] Total numbers of tests conducted for the provinces and Canada show that over 800,000 Canadians have been tested as of early May 2020.

Role of the Government of Canada[edit source | edit]

Federal approval and regulation of diagnostic tests[edit source | edit]

Only COVID-19 tests approved by Health Canada can be imported or sold in Canada.[397] Since this is usually a lengthy process, on March 18, Minister of Health Hajdu issued an interim order to allow expedited access to COVID-19-related medical devices for use by healthcare providers, including diagnostic test kits.[398] The same day, the first commercial tests were approved, RT-PCR tests from Roche and Thermo Fisher.[399] Another 13 diagnostic products have since been approved, all based on Nucleic Acid tests.[399] As of April 30, 21 diagnostic device applications were listed as submitted by Health Canada.[397]

National Microbiology Lab[edit source | edit]

Canada's National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg performs diagnostic testing for and research into COVID-19.[400] Samples from suspected cases early in the pandemic were sent by provinces and territories to this national lab for testing, either as the sole test or as a check of an in-province test result.[401] The first confirmed case in Canada was diagnosed by the lab on January 25, 2020.[401] Since then, provinces and territories have established their own testing capacity but have occasionally sent samples to the national lab for a second test as a check.[402]

Federal facilitation of testing[edit source | edit]

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of supplies, including the chemical reagents required to complete the tests.[403] In late April, the federal government arranged for a cargo flight from China that delivered the equivalent of about six to nine months of production for one particular raw material for the 20-odd raw materials needed by supplier LuminUltra to supply reagent kits for RT-PCR machines.[404]

Types of COVID-19 Tests[edit source | edit]

Virus-RNA tests[edit source | edit]

Health Canada identifies nucleic acid-based testing as "the gold standard used in Canada and abroad, for the diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection in patients with symptoms."[405] The predominant type of testing used is RT-PCR. In it, a carefully produced and validated swab is used to collect a sample from a person's throat, back of the nose, or front of the nose. The swab is put inside a sealed container containing a medium that preserves the virus, which is sent to test-processing centres in the corresponding province or territory. At the centres, highly skilled technicians use large commercial machines from a variety of manufactures to process batches of tens to hundreds of samples at a time. The test chemically strips the RNA from the sample then mixes it with a test kit containing chemical reagents designed to detect RNA signatures of SARS-CoV-2. The sample is cycled between a set of temperatures to amplify the chemical RNA signature. This leads to processing times that range from 4 to 24 hours.[406] The actual RT-PCR test is 99% accurate. However, false negative results are estimated to occur 8-10% of the time due to poor swabbing technique and might be as high as 30% depending on how long after symptom onset the test was performed.[407][408]

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of the chemical reagents and swabs required to complete the tests.[403]

Virus-RNA test reagent kits[edit source | edit]

LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. of Fredericton is producing reagent test-kits to use with automated RT-PCR machines. On April 15, Trudeau announced that the company would be "ramping up production ... to meet the weekly demand in all provinces."[403] The company announced the same day that it would provide "500,000 urgently needed COVID-19 tests per week to the Canadian federal government for use across Canada."[404]

Canadian-made Virus-RNA test systems[edit source | edit]

A few companies have developed alternate methods to test for the RNA of the virus. These might be faster than laboratory RT-PCR or portable making them useful at border crossings, isolated communities, prisons, and care homes.

Spartan Bioscience Inc. of Ottawa signed contracts with the federal government and the provinces of Alberta, Quebec, and Ontario to supply virus-RNA testing systems that process a single swab sample in 30 to 60 minutes.[409] Together the contracts were for over one million swab test kits, and at least 250 handheld devices.[410] While these machines cannot process many samples in total, they have the advantage of being small and easy to use. Thus, they can be used to provide rapid results at the point-of-care[409] On April 13, Health Canada approved this test but on May 3 the test was recalled due to unreliable results.[411]

Precision Biomonitoring of Guelph signed a Letter of Intent on March 31 with the federal government to co-develop a novel point-of-care test kit for COVID‑19, which is now pending an authorization from Health Canada.[412] Their 1.2 kg battery-operated mobile device performs nine tests per hour and takes 60 minutes to produce a result.[413]

Bio-ID Diagnostics of Edmonton has developed a direct 24-hour virus test that can be scaled to 20,000 samples per day. Since it is based on sequencing DNA it avoids false positives, and it detects a low concentration of the virus substantially reducing false negatives in asymptomatic individuals.[407]

Serological testing for antibodies[edit source | edit]

These blood tests look for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and range in complexity from laboratory tests to at-home kits similar to pregnancy tests.[414] Antibodies do not form immediately upon infection, so these tests are not well-suited for detecting a current infection. However, they can potentially identify those who have been infected in the past.[414] Health Canada has been evaluating a number of antibody tests but, as of May 1, 2020, has not approved any.[405] Health Canada deemed that "Serological tests are not appropriate for early diagnosis of COVID-19, largely due variability in the time required after infection to develop antibodies."[405]

Research and population immunity[edit source | edit]

Health Canada posts "studies will be required to determine how long the antibodies remain detectable, whether for weeks, months or years" and "the relationship between antibodies and immunity to future viral infection."[405] Nonetheless, many countries are conducting or planning large-scale testing to determine what proportion of the population has been infected and is potentially now immune. As of April 20, the WHO estimated that at most 2-3% of people in affected countries have been infected.[415] On April 23, 2020, Trudeau created an Immunity Task Force of researchers, including Dr. Tam, Dr. David Naylor, and Dr. Mona Nemer, to coordinate monitoring of immunity and vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Canadian population.[416] The taskforce will oversee national antibody surveys over the next two years in which will test one million Canadians.[395] Researchers at Sinai Health’s Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute in Toronto are developing a robotic system that can process mass numbers of antibody tests.[417]

Canadian-made antibody tests[edit source | edit]

MedMira of Halifax developed one of the first rapid detection kits for HIV and has now developed a COVID-19 antibody test that takes three minutes from taking the blood drop specimen.[418]

Plantform Corp. of Guelph has applied for funding from the National Research Council to develop an antibody test for COVID-19.[419]

Rapid Antigen testing[edit source | edit]

These test for antigens, proteins that are part of the surface of the virus. Antigens can be detected almost immediately after infection, like nucleic acid-based tests and unlike antibody tests. However, these tests use similar technology to at-home antibody tests, and are rapid, small, and could be mass-produced. Like the nucleic-acid tests, they can use nasal or throat swabs and do not require blood.[420] They have been held up as a solution for achieve mass testing of the population by Dr. Deborah Birx, the White House coronavirus task force coordinator.[421] However, as of April 2020, the WHO estimates that the sensitivity of these tests might vary from 34% to 80% (based the performance of current influenza antigen rapid tests) and writes the "WHO does not currently recommend the use of antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests for patient care, although research into their performance and potential diagnostic utility is highly encouraged."[422]

Canadian-made rapid antigen tests[edit source | edit]

Sona Nanotech of Halifax is developing point-of-care COVID-19 antigen test kits that provide results in 5–15 minutes and is anticipated to cost less than $50. If successful, the project will yield 20,000 test kits available per week, with the potential to scale-up to 1 million test kits per week.[412][423]

Statistics[edit source | edit]

National[edit source | edit]

Total cases, active cases, recoveries, and deaths
Updated May 10

  Total cases   Active cases   Recoveries   Deaths

New cases per day
Updated May 10

  New cases

New deaths per day[424]
Updated May 10

  New deaths

By age[edit source | edit]

Confirmed COVID-19 cases in Canada by age
Classification Cases Hospitalizations ICU Deaths Lethality
(%)
Number % Number % Number % Number %
All 34,405 100 3,668 100 841 100 1,864 100 5.4
Age ≥80 5,437 16 988 27 95 11 1,294 69 24
60–79 6,868 20 1464 40 439 52 482 26 7.0
40–59 11,176 32 914 25 261 31 76 4.1 0.7
20–39 9,084 26 272 7.4 44 5.2 12 0.6 0.1
0–19 1,840 5.3 30 0.8 2 0.2 0 0 0
Source: analysis on partial set of data, as of May 9, 2020, 11:00 AM EST.[425]
Fatal COVID-19 cases in Canada by age
Classification Deaths
Number % Deaths per m
All 4,803 100 128
Age Unknown 241 5.0 n/a
≥90 1470 31 4,495
80-89 1748 36 1,345
≥80 3300 69 2,037
70–79 781 16 272
60–69 334 7.0 73
50–59 97 2.0 18
40–49 35 0.7 7.3
30–39 12 0.2 2.3
20–29 3 0.1 0.6
0–19 0 0 0.0
Source: analysis on uneven provincial data sets, as of May 9, 2020.[426][427][428][429][430][431]

Provincial and territorial[edit source | edit]

Total cases by province and territory
Updated May 10

  Quebec   Ontario   Alberta   British Columbia   Nova Scotia   Saskatchewan   Manitoba   Newfoundland and Labrador   New Brunswick   Prince Edward Island   Yukon   Northwest Territories   Nunavut

Total deaths by province and territory
Updated May 10

  Quebec   Ontario   Alberta   British Columbia   Nova Scotia   Saskatchewan   Manitoba   Newfoundland and Labrador   New Brunswick   Prince Edward Island   Yukon   Northwest Territories   Nunavut

By province and territory
Updated May 10
Template:Country data BC British Columbia Template:Country data AB Alberta Template:Country data SK Saskatchewan Template:Country data MB Manitoba
Template:Country data ON Ontario Template:Country data QC Quebec Template:Country data NB New Brunswick Template:Country data PE Prince Edward Island

Syntax error

Syntax error

Syntax error

Template:Country data NSLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Nova Scotia Template:Country data NLLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Newfoundland and Labrador Template:Country data YTLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Yukon Template:Country data NTLua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Northwest Territories

Syntax error

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<span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Total cases <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Active cases <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Recoveries <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Deaths
Timeline of cases by province and territory

Template:COVID-19 pandemic data/Canada medical cases

References[edit source | edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  4. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  5. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  6. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  7. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  8. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  11. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  12. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  13. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  16. 16.0 16.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  17. 17.0 17.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  18. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  19. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  20. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  21. 21.0 21.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  22. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  23. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  24. 24.0 24.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  25. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  26. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  27. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  28. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  29. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  30. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  31. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  32. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  33. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  34. 34.0 34.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  35. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  36. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  37. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  38. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  39. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  40. 40.0 40.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  41. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  42. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  43. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  44. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  45. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  46. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  47. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  48. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  49. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  50. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  51. 51.0 51.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  52. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  54. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  55. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  58. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  59. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  60. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  61. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  62. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  63. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  64. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  65. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  66. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  67. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  68. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  69. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  70. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  71. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  73. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  74. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  75. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  76. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  78. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  79. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  80. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  81. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  82. 82.0 82.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  86. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  97. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  98. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  107. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  108. 108.0 108.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  109. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  110. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  111. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  112. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  113. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  114. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  115. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  116. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  117. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  118. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  119. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  120. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  121. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  122. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  123. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  125. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  126. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  127. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  128. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  129. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  130. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  131. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  132. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  133. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  134. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  135. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  136. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  137. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  138. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  139. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  140. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  141. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  142. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  143. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  144. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  145. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  146. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  147. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  148. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  149. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  150. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  151. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  152. Restricted entry: [Special Measures Order (Amendment No.11)|https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/files/Special-Measures-Order-Amendment-No.-11-April-29-2020.pdf]
  153. Restrict gathering: [Special Measures Order (Amendment No.3)|https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/files/Special-Measures-Order-Amendment-No.-3-March-31-2020.pdf]
  154. Restaurants: [Special Measures Order|https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/files/Special-Measures-Order-Updated-March-24-2020.pdf]
  155. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  156. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  157. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  158. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  159. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  161. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  162. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  163. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  164. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  176. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  179. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  180. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  181. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  182. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  183. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  185. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  187. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  188. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  189. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  193. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  194. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  197. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  198. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  199. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  217. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  218. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  219. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  220. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
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  228. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  229. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  230. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  231. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  232. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  233. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  234. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  235. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  236. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  237. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  238. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  239. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  240. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  241. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  242. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  243. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  244. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  245. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  246. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  247. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  248. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  249. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  250. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  251. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  252. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  253. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  254. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  255. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  256. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  257. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  258. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  259. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  260. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  261. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  262. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  263. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  264. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  265. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  266. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  267. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  268. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  269. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  270. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  271. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  272. 272.0 272.1 Brodie Fenlon, "An update on local services and all the ways to access COVID-19 information on CBC News". CBC News, March 25, 2020.
  273. Jordan Pinto, "CBC switches up Sunday nights, puts Tom Power in primetime". Playback, April 3, 2020.
  274. Jordan Pinto, "CBC, Hot Docs team for ‘festival-at-home’ experience". Playback, April 6, 2020.
  275. 275.0 275.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  276. 276.0 276.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  277. "Canadian Folk Music Awards cancelled due to coronavirus concerns". The Guardian, March 13, 2020.
  278. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  279. "Le Gala Québec Cinéma annulé à cause de la pandémie". Ici Radio-Canada, April 2, 2020.
  280. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  281. Kevin Ritchie, "Inside Out film festival postponed over coronavirus concerns". Now, March 25, 2020.
  282. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  283. "Canada Reads 2020 postponed" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".. CBC Books, March 13, 2020.
  284. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  285. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  286. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  287. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  288. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  289. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  290. Richard Trapunski, "Canada's National Arts Centre and Facebook will pay musicians for livestreams". Now, March 19, 2020.
  291. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  292. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  293. Debra Yeo, "‘Stronger Together’ COVID-19 special becomes most watched non-sports broadcast ever in Canada". Toronto Star, April 27, 2020.
  294. Claire Shaffer, "Justin Bieber, Geddy Lee and More Sing ‘Lean on Me’ in Bill Withers Tribute". Rolling Stone, April 27, 2020.
  295. "Watch Justin Bieber, Michael Bublé, Avril Lavigne and more sing 'Lean on Me' together". CBC Music, April 26, 2020.
  296. 296.0 296.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". This page includes Aggregate data, Cases in Alberta, and Testing in Alberta
  297. 297.0 297.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  298. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  299. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  300. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  301. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  302. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  303. 303.0 303.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  304. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  305. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  306. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  307. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  308. 308.0 308.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  309. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  310. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  311. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  312. 312.0 312.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  313. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  314. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  315. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  316. 316.0 316.1 316.2 316.3 316.4 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  317. b-c-health-officials-announce-9-new-covid-19-cases-clarify-testing-procedures-1
  318. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  319. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  320. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  321. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  322. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  323. 323.0 323.1 323.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  324. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  325. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  326. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  327. 327.0 327.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  328. 328.0 328.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  329. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  330. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  331. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  332. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  333. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  334. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  335. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  336. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  337. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  338. 338.0 338.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  339. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  340. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  341. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  342. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  343. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  344. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  345. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  346. 346.0 346.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  347. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  348. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  349. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  350. 350.0 350.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  351. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  352. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  353. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  354. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  355. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  356. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  357. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  358. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  359. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  360. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  361. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  362. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  363. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  364. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  365. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  366. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  367. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  368. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  369. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  370. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  371. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  372. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  373. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  374. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  375. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  376. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  377. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  378. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  379. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  380. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  381. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  382. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  383. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  384. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  385. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  386. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  387. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  388. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  389. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  390. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  391. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  392. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  393. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  394. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  395. 395.0 395.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  396. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  397. 397.0 397.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  398. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  399. 399.0 399.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  400. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  401. 401.0 401.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  402. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  403. 403.0 403.1 403.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  404. 404.0 404.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  405. 405.0 405.1 405.2 405.3 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  406. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  407. 407.0 407.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  408. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  409. 409.0 409.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  410. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  411. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  412. 412.0 412.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  413. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  414. 414.0 414.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  415. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  416. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  417. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  418. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  419. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  420. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  421. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  422. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  423. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  424. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-coronavirus-cases-canada-world-map-explainer/
  425. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  426. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  427. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  428. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  429. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  430. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  431. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

External links[edit source | edit]

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Template:COVID-19 pandemic in Canada