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COVID-19 pandemic in Russia

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COVID-19 pandemic in Russia
COVID-19 outbreak cases per capita in Russia.svg
Confirmed cases per million by federal subjects
as of 30 July 2020
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Russia (Density).svg
Total confirmed cases by federal subjects as of 30 July 2020
COVID-19 outbreak total deaths per capita in Russia.svg
Confirmed deaths per million by federal subjects
as of 30 July 2020
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationRussia
First caseTyumen and Chita
Arrival date31 January 2020
OriginWuhan, Hubei, China
Confirmed cases834,499[1][2][lower-alpha 1]
Recovered629,655[1][2][lower-alpha 1]
Deaths
13,802[1][2]
Official website
стопкоронавирус.рф

The COVID-19 pandemic in Russia is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Russia on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese citizens in Tyumen (Siberia) and Chita (Russian Far East) tested positive for the virus, with both cases being contained. Early prevention measures included restricting the border with China and extensive testing. The infection spread from Italy on 2 March, leading to additional measures such as cancelling events, closing schools, theatres, and museums, as well as shutting the border and declaring a non-working period which (after two extensions) lasted until 11 May 2020. By the end of March 2020, the vast majority of federal subjects, including Moscow, had imposed lockdowns. On 17 April 2020, cases were confirmed in all federal subjects. On 27 April 2020 the number of confirmed cases surpassed those in China.

Russia currently has the largest number of confirmed cases in Europe, and the fourth-highest number of confirmed cases in the world, after the United States, Brazil, and India. According to figures from the national coronavirus crisis centre as of 30 July 2020, Russia has 834,499 confirmed cases, 629,655 recoveries, 13,802 deaths, and over 27.8 million tests performed.[1]

Timeline[edit source | edit]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic data/Russia medical cases chart

January-February 2020[edit source | edit]

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, Hubei, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[3][4] Compared to SARS of 2003, the case fatality ratio for COVID-19[5][6] has been much lower, but the incubation period and transmission have been significantly greater, resulting in a significant total death toll.[7][5]

On 31 January, the first two cases in the country were confirmed, one in Tyumen, Tyumen Oblast, and another one in Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals.[8]

On 23 February, eight Russians from the cruise ship Diamond Princess were evacuated to Kazan, Tatarstan where they were hospitalised, including three confirmed cases.[9] These cases were listed as occurring on international conveyance and not included in official Russian statistics by Rospotrebnadzor. These eight people, including the three patients who recovered, were discharged from hospital on 8 March.[10] Some of Russia's citizens abroad have been confirmed to be infected, on 28 February a Russian man tested positive in Azerbaijan after he had visited Iran. While some days later the Health ministry of the UAE announced that two Russians got the virus in the United Arab Emirates.[11]

March 2020[edit source | edit]

There were no other confirmed cases until 2 March when the first case in Moscow was confirmed.[12][13] The patient was a young man who fell ill on 21 February while on holiday in Italy, and returned to Russia on 23 February, staying at his house in Moscow Oblast.[12] He showed up with symptoms at a clinic on 27 February, and was then hospitalised in Moscow.[12] On 5 March, the first case in Saint Petersburg was confirmed. The patient was an Italian student who returned to Russia from Italy on 29 February, was hospitalised on 2 March.[14] On 6 March, six more cases were confirmed, with five of them being in Moscow and one of them being in Nizhny Novgorod. All of them were reported to be linked to Italy.[15]

On 19 March, the first death of a patient with confirmed COVID-19 was reported in Moscow. A 79-year-old woman was first hospitalised on 13 March and transferred to a private clinic the next day. Upon confirmation of COVID-19 she was transferred to an intensive care ward in Moscow Infectious Hospital No. 2. She also suffered from numerous underlying health conditions and other diseases.[16][17] However, pulmonary embolism was identified as the direct cause of her death,[18] she had no pathological changes in lungs,[19] and her death was not officially counted as caused by coronavirus.[20][21] The victim was identified in the media as Valentina Zubareva, professor at the Gubkin University, she had contracted the disease in Russia.[22] The first two confirmed deaths were recorded on 25 March in Moscow. The patients were 73 and 88 years old and had been tested positive for the coronavirus.[23]

On 25 March, President Putin announced that the 2020 Russian constitutional referendum would be postponed due to the epidemic.[24] He said that the next week starting with 30 March, would be non-working nationwide and urged Russians to stay at home.[25][26] Later, the non-working period was prolonged twice, lasting until 11 May.[27][28] On 27 March, international flights were grounded after the government ordered the civil aviation authority to suspend all regular and charter flights to and from the country.[29] On 29 March, Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin issued a stay-at-home order starting the next day.[30] On 30 March, similar orders or recommendations were announced in numerous other federal subjects, with many more announcing such restrictions over the next few days.[31] The same day, the border was shut, with all border crossings closed.[32]

April 2020[edit source | edit]

On 11 April, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, signed a decree introducing a digital pass system to enforce the coronavirus lockdown, in which residents would require such a permit to travel around the city and Moscow Oblast using personal and public transport, with different types of passes including travelling to work, visiting hospitals and clinics, and private trips. Such permits would become mandatory on 15 April.[33]

On 29 April, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin said on social media that the city would start constructing temporary hospitals that would have a total of 10,000 hospital beds for coronavirus patients.[34] Russia also indefinitely extended its entry ban for foreigners, which was originally set until 1 May, with Prime Minister Mishustin saying that the ban will be lifted when the coronavirus situation improves.[35] On 30 April, Prime Minister Mishustin said that he tested positive for the virus.[36]

May 2020[edit source | edit]

On 9 May, with the 2020 Moscow Victory Day Parade postponed, celebrations marking the 75th anniversary of the surrender of Nazi Germany were reduced. An air show took place in Moscow instead and President Putin laid flowers at the Eternal Flame outside the Kremlin. Authorities also urged citizens to stay at home instead.[37]

On 10 May, the World Health Organisation's representative to Russia, Melita Vujnovic, said that day that Russia may have reached the plateau for the virus.[38] On 11 May, President Putin announced the end of the national non-working period on 12 May and he also announced additional support measures including bonuses for doctors, subsidies for companies and payments to families with children. He also said that regional leaders can choose to keep restrictions.[28] The same day, the reproduction rate of the virus in Moscow fell below 1 for the first time, from 1.02 the previous day to 0.96, and on 14 May, the rate across Russia fell below 1 for the first time, from 1.01 the previous day to 0.97.[39][40]

On 26 May, Putin announced that the postponed 2020 Victory Day Parade would be held on 24 June.[41] On 27 May, Sobyanin announced that some restrictions in Moscow would be eased on 1 June, with all non-food stores and some service sector businesses re-opening and residents would be able to go outside for walks and sport according to a schedule.[42] On 30 May, Health Minister Mikhail Murashko said that vaccine tests were under way and that clinical trials were planned to begin in the next two weeks.[43]

June 2020[edit source | edit]

On 1 June, the postponed referendum was announced to be held on 1 July.[44] Reuters news agency also reported that Russia would roll out its first approved drug to treat COVID-19 in the next week.[45] On 2 June, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin said that the government would launch a 5 trillion ruble ($73 billion) recovery plan in the next month to counteract the pandemic's economic impact.[46]

On 8 June, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, said that the city would lift coronavirus restrictions. Self-isolation rules and travel permits would be waived on 9 June, with no more walking schedules. Residents would be able to freely travel around the city and visit public places. Places like beauty salons, hairdressers and veterinarian clinics would re-open, with other places like restaurants re-opening over the course of June. Residents are still required to wear face masks and gloves and are advised to maintain their distance from others.[47][48] That day, Prime Minister Mishustin also announced the partial re-opening of the border for some travellers, saying that it would allow citizens to leave the country for work, studying, medical treatment or to take care of relatives. It would also allow foreign citizens to enter for medical treatment or those needing to care for relatives and family.[49]

On 22 June, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, announced further easing of restrictions on 23 June with cafes and restaurants reopening as well as fitness centres and swimming pools. Restrictions on libraries, kindergartens would be lifted.[50] On 23 June, President Putin announced changes to the tax system and further state benefits.[51] On 24 June, the Victory Day parade in Red Square took place while it was reported that 30 major cities in Russia had cancelled their parade.[52]

July 2020[edit source | edit]

On 1 July, the main day for the vote on constitutional amendments took place. On 8 July, the governor of Moscow Oblast, Andrey Vorobyov, signed a decree easing some restrictions in the region including allowing restaurants, cafes, bars and other catering establishments to reopen from 25 July as well as a number of other places to reopen from 15 July.[53] On 9 July, Moscow's authorities announced further easing of some restrictions with cinemas allowed to reopen and concerts allowed to be held from 1 August provided that they meet certain requirements. Attractions would be able to reopen and restrictions on places like parks and cultural centres would be removed on 13 July. Universities and schools would also be able to return to normal and the use of face masks and gloves outdoors would no longer be required except in public transport, shops and crowded areas.[54][55]

On 10 July, Tatyana Golikova said that starting on 15 July, authorities will start to gradually lift restrictions on flights abroad and will begin negotiations to restart international flights.[56] On 12 July, it was reported that Sechenov University had completed testing of a vaccine developed by the Gamalei Center on volunteers and that scientists had confirmed its safety.[57] On 15 July, the 14-day quarantine requirement for arrivals in the country was abolished with arrivals now requiring medical documents in English or Russian showing a negative test. If an arrival does not have such documents, they will be placed into observation until they get a negative test result. Tatyana Golikova previously said that quarantines can be maintained for Russians returning from countries with high infection rates.[58] On 16 July, Reuters reported that 30 million doses of the experimental vaccine would be produced domestically in Russia and the potential for 170 million to be manufactured abroad, according to the head of RDIF, Kirill Dmitriev. He also said that a Phase III trial involving several thousand people is expected to start in August.[59]

On 24 July, Tatyana Golikova said that the country plans to resume some international flights on 1 August, with the list of destinations currently limited to Tanzania, Turkey and the United Kingdom. This would include airports in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don to and from the island of Zanzibar, London, Istanbul and Ankara. She said that more destinations in Turkey would be added from 10 August. She also said that a list of more countries was being worked on by authorities on a mutual basis.[60]

Treatment[edit source | edit]

Overview[edit source | edit]

As of 28 April, the Ministry of Health approved the 6th version of the temporary methodological recommendations: prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The focus is on early intervention prior to receiving test results for suspected cases in an outpatient setting. On 17 April the second version of the officially not approved temporary guidelines was published - "Drug treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in outpatient practice during the COVID-19 epidemic" by the Ministry of Health. This is designed to provide recommendations of the combination of antiviral drugs that can be used for urgent outpatient treatment of patients with ARVI symptoms without waiting for the results of testing. These documents advise that it is clinically proven that an early start to treatment provides an easier and shorter course of the disease, while no scientific data yet support this statement. Recommendations for drug treatment of ARVI were published on the website of the Ministry of Health.[61]

Diagnosis[edit source | edit]

The definition of a suspicious case in the guidelines (translated from Russian) is as follows "any case of acute respiratory infection (body temperature above 37.5 °C and one or more of the following symptoms: cough - dry or with sputum, shortness of breath, feeling of stuffiness in the chest, blood saturation with oxygenpulse oximetry (SpO2) ≤ 95%, sore throat, runny nose and other catarrhal symptoms) in the absence of other known causes that explain the clinical picture"[citation needed]

The guidelines define a mild ARVI as follows:

  • body temperature below 38 °C;
  • respiratory rate less than 22 per min;
  • oxygen saturation (SpO2) more than 95%;
  • lack of shortness of breath;
  • lack of clinical and auscultatory picture of pneumonia.[62]

Drugs used[edit source | edit]

The guidelines clearly stated that no one drug is experimentally proven effective as antiviral agent against COVID-19. It recommend "several drugs that can be used both in monotherapy and in combination: INN: chloroquine, INN: hydroxychloroquine, INN: mefloquine, INN: lopinavir/ritonavir, INN: azithromycin. Among the drugs that are being tested in vitro and already are in clinical trials in patients with COVID-19 are the following: INN: umifenovir, INN: remdesivir, INN: favipiravir and others."[62]

Initial treatment prior to laboratory confirmation of diagnosis is the "use of reduced dosages INN: hydroxychloroquine and INN: mefloquine, which reduces their risk cardiotoxicity without a significant decrease in effectiveness." with a rider "Given the little experience with mefloquine with COVID-19, its use is recommended only when hydroxychloroquine is unavailable." [62]

According to the guidelines, after laboratory confirmation of diagnosis the treatment is as follows:[citation needed]

  1. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose- 15000-18000 ME) + hydroxychloroquine 600 mg on the first day (3times 200 mg), 400 mg on the second day (2 times 200 mg), then200 mg per day for 5 days;
  2. umifenovir: 200 mg 4 times a day + hydroxychloroquine 600 mg the first day (3 times 200 mg), 400 mg on the second day (2 times 200mg), then 200 mg per day for 5 days;
  3. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose -15000-18000 ME) + mefloquine 500 mg on the first and second day (2 times 250 mg), then 250 mg per day for 5 days *;
  4. umifenovir : 200 mg 4 times a day + mefloquine 500 mg in the first and the second day (2 times 250 mg), then 250 mg per day for 5days *;
  5. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose -15000-18000 ME) + umifenovir, 200 mg 4 times a day - during 5 days**.[62]

Both recombinant interferon alfa and umifenovir are unique recommendations from Russian authors. They have no international recognition, because are not based on the appropriate research data.[citation needed]

* when hydroxychloroquine is unavailable; ** - if there are contraindications to the appointment hydroxychloroquine and mefloquine[62]

More detailed treatment plans for different severalties along with diagnosis and treatment pathways are in the appendices to the guidelines.[62]

The guidelines state that "Given the lack of objective evidence of effectiveness the use of the above drugs with COVID-19, the appointment of treatment must necessarily be accompanied by voluntary informed consent of the patient (or his legal representative)."[62]

On 8 July, Reuters reported that Russia approved the use of a new anti-viral drug of undisclosed structure, Coronavir, for mild to moderate COVID-19.[63]

Clinically trialled drugs[edit source | edit]

On 30 May, the Health Ministry approved Avifavir as having been "highly effective" in the first phase of clinical trials. 330 patients are taking part in the final stage of clinical trials and the results are expected to be announced on 1 June. Avifavir was developed with the backing of the Russia Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) and is a generic form of favipiravir which has been used in Japan since 2014 for severe influenza.[64][65][66]

Noninvasive ventilation[edit source | edit]

On 2 June, the Russian Academy of Sciences announced the results of a study of 76 patients that showed that 71% of patients with acute respiratory failure could be treated with non-invasive lung ventilation provided this was applied in the early stages. This is significant because the death rate is as high as 70% for those that are not treated early enough and have to have invasive lung ventilation with drugs for sedation.[67]

Healthcare system[edit source | edit]

Overview[edit source | edit]

On 19 March 2020, the Russian Government reported the following data. More than 55 thousand beds for infectious cases were deployed, including more than 12 thousand intensive care units and 396 observatories. 7.5 thousand Melzer boxes were prepared. Medical organisations have more than 40 thousand devices for artificial lung ventilation, 124 devices for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The government of the Russian Federation has allocated resources for the additional purchase of more than 500 devices, including 17 ECMO devices. Today, 6,000 infectious diseases doctors and almost 2,000 pulmonologists, more than 18,000 nurses are ready to provide medical assistance.[68]

According to the OECD, Russia ranks third in the number of beds per capita. However, bed equipment varies from hospital to hospital. In terms of equipment – for example, CT and MRI devices – Russia is in 28th place with a dramatic gap from the leaders. Rosstat does not publish data on the number of places in intensive care units and equipment. In total, there are 1 million 172,000 beds in Russian hospitals, according to Rosstat data for 2018. These include intensive care units. An intensive care bed means a bed equipped with a set of equipment for resuscitation and intensive care, including ventilators. The Institute of Phthisiopulmonology and infectious diseases of the Ministry of Health estimated the number of intensive care beds at just 12,000, which is three times less than the Ministry of Health's standard. The proekt.media independent investigative website was able to find data on the number of intensive care beds in only 23 regions. Only Moscow, Kalmykia, Altai, and Komi reached a standard of 3%. Other regions are significantly below the standard.
Separate ventilators in hospitals should be more than intensive care beds. The number of ventilators in a region should be at least 1.5 times more than the number of intensive care beds. There are no official statistics on the number of ventilators. Federal authorities with the beginning of the epidemic conducted their own calculations: Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova said that Russia has 40,000 ventilators. This is 3.4% of the total number of beds in Russia, and more than 12 thousand devices are missing from the standards of the Ministry of health. This is a total deficit of 23%, but in some regions, it is much larger. The proekt.media website tried to find sources of information to evaluate that all the devices included in the statistics are in working order. 58% of ventilators are more than 9 years old. Components may require more frequent replacement. For example, the oxygen sensor of the American model common in Russia, Puritan Bennett, is subject to replacement every two years.[69]

Data collected by the news website Meduza indicates that Russia's supply of ventilators is quite extensive: Even the number available per capita in some geographically peripheral regions, not to mention Moscow, significantly exceeds ventilator supplies in Western countries.[70]

A Meduza investigation revealed that the areas with the highest proportions of elderly residents (Tula, Tambov, Ryazan, and Tver regions) are most vulnerable to the epidemic because of the few numbers of ventilators and, in particular, Tula and Tver governors didn't issue general stay-at-home orders.[71]

Statistics[edit source | edit]

Extended content
VENTILATORS PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
REGION VENTILATORS PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
Khanty-Mansi AO
56.8
Samara region
42.6
Amur region
42.5
Moscow (city)
40
Kirov region
39.6
Arkhangelsk region
38.4
Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
37.2
Sakhalin region
37.1
Tomsk region
37.1
St. Petersburg (city)
35.2
Lipetsk region
35.1
Sverdlovsk region
35
Chuvash Republic (Chuvashia)
34.7
Altai Krai
34.6
Republic of Crimea (status disputed)
34.3
Republic of Karelia
32.5
Yaroslavl region
31.5
Vladimir region
31.4
Tambov region
31.2
Penza region
30.7
Murmansk region
30.5
Pskov region
30.3
Republic of Tatarstan
28.2
Orenburg region
27.7
Russia
27.3
Kemerovo region
27.3
Ryazan region
27.1
Irkutsk region
26.5
Republic of Bashkortostan (Bashkiria)
25.5
Republic of Buryatia
24.9
VENTILATORS PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
REGION VENTILATORS PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
Krasnoyarsk Krai
24.6
Chelyabinsk region
24.5
Astrakhan region
23.9
Zabaikalsky Krai
22.8
Saratov region
22.1
Vologda region
22.1
Kursk region
21.9
Orel region
21.8
Mari El Republic
20.9
Novosibirsk region
20.4
Tula region
20.3
Udmurt Republic (Udmurtia)
20.2
Perm Krai
20
Kostroma region
19.1
United States
18.8
Kaliningrad region
18.8
Omsk region
18.7
Ivanovo region
17.9
Krasnodar Krai
17.6
Belgorod region
16.8
Rostov region
15.3
Voronezh region
15
Leningrad region
14.3
United Kingdom
12.9
Sevastopol (city; status disputed)
12.9
Tver region
9.4
Ukraine
8.6
Italy
8.3
Kaluga region
4.8

Government responses[edit source | edit]

The government of Russia has initially responded to the pandemic with preventive measures to curb the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019, which involved imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers, and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.[72] Measures to prevent a crisis in Russia include banning the export of medical masks, random checks on the Moscow Metro, and cancellation of large-scale events by schools. The Russian government has also taken measures to prevent foreign citizens from heavily affected countries from visiting Russia.[73] Local governments have also responded to the pandemic by imposing their own preventive measures in their communities.

Lockdowns[edit source | edit]

Map of federal subjects that have announced the "self-isolation regime".
  Stay-at-home order
  Partial restrictions or recommendations
Playground closed for quarantine, 7 April 2020

On 28 March, Chechen authorities urged the population of the republic to stay at their places of permanent residence, and banned entry to Grozny for anyone except emergency services, food supplies, government officials, police, and journalists.[74] On the next day, Chechnya closed its borders, with a full lockdown coming into effect on 30 March.[75]

On 29 March, Moscow issued a stay-at-home order for all residents starting on 30 March. Muscovites were not allowed to leave their homes except in cases of emergency medical care and other threats to life and health, to travel to work for those who are obliged to, to make purchases in the nearest shop or pharmacy, to walk pets at a distance not exceeding 100 metres from the place of residence, as well as to take out the garbage. People were instructed to keep a distance of 1.5 metres from other people. Those recently unemployed will receive 19,500 rubles a month.[76][77] After that, a similar regime was introduced in Moscow Oblast at 20:00 MSK on 29 March.[78]

On 30 March, similar orders were announced in Adygea, the Komi Republic, Mari El, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, some districts of Yakutia, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan,[79] Belgorod, Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Kursk, Lipetsk, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Ryazan, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Ulyanovsk and Vologda oblasts, the cities of Bryansk and Saint Petersburg.[80][81] Leningrad Oblast banned movement of people between districts and introduced a lockdown in the town of Murino [ru].[82]

On 31 March, the "self-isolation regime" was announced in republics of Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Dagestan,[83] Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Karelia,[84] Khakassia, Mordovia, Udmurtia and Tuva, Altai, Khabarovsk (for those over 65), Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Primorsky, Stavropol and Zabaykalsky krais, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma,[85] Kurgan, Magadan, Novosibirsk, Omsk,[86] Penza, Pskov (for those over 65), Rostov, Sakhalin, Samara, Smolensk,[87] Tambov, Tomsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Voronezh and Yaroslavl[88] oblasts, Khanty-Mansi[89] and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast,[90] the city of Sevastopol.[91][92][93][81] Republics of Yakutia and Karelia limited the sale of alcohol.[94]

On 1 April, the "self-isolation regime" was announced in the disputed territory of Crimea and Sevastopol,[95] the republic of North Ossetia–Alania,[96] Kamchatka[97] and Khabarovsk[98] krais, Ivanovo[99] and Orenburg[100] oblasts. On 2 April, the measures were announced in Amur Oblast (for those over 65), Tyumen Oblast,[101] and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.[102] On 3 April, the measures were announced in Oryol Oblast[103] and Tula Oblast (for those over 65).[104]

Foreign aid[edit source | edit]

In early February, aid was sent to China.[105][106]

On 21 March, it was announced that Russia delivered over 100,000 test kits to 13 countries, including Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Serbia, Egypt, Venezuela, Iran, and North Korea.[107]

On 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin arranged the Russian army to send medical help to Italy, which was the European country hardest hit by coronavirus.[108]

On 1 April, a Russian military plane was sent to the United States to deliver medical equipment.[109] The equipment was apparently sold to the US.[110]

Economic impact[edit source | edit]

KFC restaurant in Pushkino, Moscow Oblast switched to a take-away regime.

On 20 February, Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov said Russia is losing around 1 billion rubles each day because of decreased trade with China.[111]

On 5 March, the head of the Russian Association of Tour Operators said Russia's tourism sector had already taken a 27 billion ruble hit from the impact of the coronavirus.[112]

As a result of the pandemic, factory output and transportation demand fell, bringing overall demand for oil down as well, and causing oil prices to fall. This triggered an OPEC summit in Vienna on 5 March. At the summit, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by an additional 1.5 million barrels per day through the second quarter of the year.[113] OPEC called on Russia and other non-OPEC members of OPEC+ to abide by the OPEC decision.[114] On 6 March, Russia rejected the demand, marking the end of the partnership, with oil prices falling 10% after the announcement.[115][116] On 8 March, Saudi Arabia initiated an oil price war with Russia, triggering a major fall in the price of oil around 30%.[117] The price war is one of the major causes of the currently ongoing global stock market crash. As the result of the oil price falling, the Russian ruble suffered a fall hitting a four-year low against the U.S. dollar.[118]

On 17 March, First Deputy Minister of Transport and Federal Air Transport Agency head Alexander Neradko said cancellation of international flights during the pandemic threatens to bankrupt multiple Russian airlines. Russian airlines lost an estimated 1.7 billion rubles due to the cancellation of flights to China in February. According to Neradko, airlines could lose another 100 billion rubles in revenues by the end of the year.[119]

On 23 March, Russia's federal list of "systemically important" companies was expanded to three times, featuring about 600 businesses. According to Vedomosti, the updated list includes new airlines (Rossiya, S7, Utair), airports (Moscow Domodedovo, Saint Petersburg Pulkovo), grocery chains (Vkusvill [ru], Auchan), fast food chains (McDonald's, Burger King), and retail shops (Sportmaster [ru], IKEA).[120]

On 24 March, Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin issued orders to support businesses which include postponing payments on organisations’ property and land taxes, deferring rental payments, reducing payments fixed in trading contracts and extending the deadlines for paying trade fees. On 25 March, President of Russia Vladimir Putin announced following measures for microenterprises, small- and medium-sized businesses: deferring tax payments (except Russia's value-added tax) for the next six months, cutting the size of social security contributions in half, deferring social security contributions, deferring loan repayments for the next six months, a six-month moratorium on fines, debt collection, and creditors’ applications for bankruptcy of debtor enterprises. Additionally, a new tax on income from large deposits will be introduced in 2021, and the tax on offshores will be increased.[121][122][123][124] On 27 March, the Association of Banks of Russia reported an increase of deposits closure.[125]

On 25 March, associations of companies of online shopping, retail, culinary, and nine other industries sent a letter to Prime Minister Mishustin, in which they warned of a possible collapse of their businesses and asked for numerous additional measures of support.[126] On 26 March, a petition signed by publishing houses and bookshops pleading for support was published.[127]

On 30 March, owners of hotels and restaurants asked the government for 1-year tax deferral and other fiscal measures.[128]

On 1 April, nearly 1.4 trillion rubles had been earmarked for fighting the virus and the pandemic's economic impact.[129]

Aeroflot′s low-cost carrier Pobeda Airlines announced it would stop flights on 1 April until 31 May.[130]

Sberbank and VTB Bank with backing from the Central Bank will start offering six-month, interest-free loans to businesses to help them pay employee salaries.[131]

The Eurasian Economic Union will ban export of the onions, garlics, turnips, rye, rice, buckwheat, proso millets, groats, whole-wheat flour, granules of cereal grain, pealed buckwheat grain, buckwheat ready meals, soybeans, sunflower seeds from 10 April to 30 June.[132]

On 14 April 2020, the International Monetary Fund projected Russia's real GDP growth rate to be −5.5% for 2020 in what it called "The Great Lockdown".[133] International ratings agency Moody's said in late April that it expected Russia's GDP to decline by 5.5% in 2020, with it growing by 2.2% in 2021.[134]

On 16 April, Minister of Economic Development Maxim Reshetnikov said that Russia is set to spend over 2 trillion rubles to counter the pandemic's effects.[129]

On 24 April, the Central Bank of Russia cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 5.5%.[129]

On 18 May, the Federal Air Transport Agency said that it allocated 7.89 billion rubles to Aeroflot as a partial compensation for losses due to the pandemic. It said it would consider applications from 6 more companies. Overall, the government had allocated 23.4 billion rubles to compensate for losses to airlines.[135]

On 2 June, Prime Minister Mishustin said that the government would launch a 5 trillion ruble ($73 billion) recovery plan in the next month to counteract against the pandemic's economic effects. The program would last until the end of 2021 with the target of bringing the unemployment rate back to under 5% and economic growth of 2.5% a year. It was reported that the plan would include greater daily spending from the federal budget and lost tax revenues, and that the recovery package could overall be worth 7.3 trillion rubles ($106 billion) once long-term infrastructure projects, which isn't counted against the regular annual budget, are included. Mishustin said that the program was divided into 3 stages consisting of "stabilisation" (until end of 2020), "recovery" (until mid 2021) and "growth" from Q4 of 2021. It also outlines structural changes to labour regulations, including a new hourly minimum wage to support part-time work, encourage employment and decrease the size of the shadow economy. It is also planned to increase real wage growth by 2.5% and reduce the poverty rate of 12.3% in 2019.[46]

On 23 June, President Putin, in a televised address, announced additional economic and social support measures as a result of the pandemic's impact. He announced the end of Russia's flat income tax rate of 13% that he introduced in 2001 by increasing the tax rate for the top earners who earn over 5 million rubles to 15%, starting from 1 January 2021. He said that the extra revenue of around 60 billion rubles would go towards helping children with severe or rare diseases. He also announced other measures including increased benefits to families where both parents have lost their job and a one-off payment to families in July of 10,000 rubles for each child they have aged under 16. 100 billion rubles would also handed out in loans for businesses to pay employees. He also said that IT companies would benefit from an ultra-low tax regime and profits tax for them would be cut from 20% to 3%.[136][137][51]

On 17 July, Reuters reported that the economy shrank by 9.6% year-on-year in the 2nd quarter, the most in 20 years, according to the economy minister. Real disposable incomes fell by 8% in year-on-year terms in April to June according to Rosstat. It also said that Russia's industrial output fell by 9.4% in June compared to a year ago.[138]

On 22 July, the Economy Minister, Maxim Reshetnikov, was quoted as saying that Russia's GDP declined by 4.2% in the first half of 2020. He said that this ministry was maintaining its 2020 forecast of a decrease of 4.8%, but that it would be revised in August.[139]

Political impact[edit source | edit]

Events[edit source | edit]

On 25 March, the 2020 constitutional referendum, which was originally scheduled for 22 April, was postponed by President Putin in a televised address to the nation.[140][141]

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the pandemic.[142] A referendum on the issue was planned to be held on 13 September 2020.[143] This could be the first merger of Russia's federal subjects since the unification of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug in 2008.[144] After protests in Nenets Autonomous Okrug including from local United Russia representatives, on 28 May the referendum was postponed indefinitely.[145]

Legislation[edit source | edit]

On 1 April, President Putin signed legislation imposing severe punishments for those convicted of spreading false information about the coronavirus and breaking quarantine rules.[146]

On 13 May, the State Duma submitted and passed amendments allowing electoral commissions to introduce postal or internet voting during elections and referendums. Previously, voting by mail could be allowed only in regions, but now it has been extended to the federal level. The amendment does not affect the 2020 constitutional referendum, the procedure of which is covered by a separate law. In addition to that, collecting voter signatures for registering a candidate or organising a referendum will be allowed through the Russian Public Services Portal [ru], however the number of such signatures can't exceed 50%. The procedure of filling signature sheets has been changed as well, now voters have to fill their names personally. The number of maximum invalid signatures has been lowered from 10% to 5%. The Communist Party, LDPR and A Just Russia opposed the amendment, saying that the draft was not consulted with them. The law has been passed with 250 votes in favour and 83 against.[147][148]

Politicians infected[edit source | edit]

Federal Assembly[edit source | edit]

On 25 April, two cases were confirmed in the State Duma, the lower chamber of the Federal Assembly, the Russian parliament. They included deputies from the Communist Party Leonid Kalashnikov and Dmitry Novikov.[149]

On 6 May, United Russia deputy Svetlana Maksimova [ru] was diagnosed with COVID-19. She was hospitalised in Tver earlier.[150]

On 13 May, the Chairman of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin announced that five deputies had been infected in total. Three of them were hospitalised, one of which had been recovered. Oksana Pushkina from the United Russia party said that she is one of the two new confirmed cases.[151] On 18 May, the advisor of the chairman Anastasia Kashevarova said that six deputies had positive tests, two of them had recovered, two were hospitalised, another two were quarantined at home.[152]

On 20 May, the Chairwoman of the Federation Council, the upper chamber, Valentina Matviyenko said that five senators had recovered from COVID-19.[153]

Government[edit source | edit]

On 30 April, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin announced that he had tested positive for the virus. President Putin as a result signed an executive order to appoint First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov as Acting Prime Minister while Mishustin recovers.[36] On 19 May, President Putin reappointed Mishustin as the Prime Minister.[154]

On 1 May, Minister of Construction, Housing and Utilities Vladimir Yakushev and his deputy Dmitry Volkov were hospitalised because of positive tests. Another deputy, Nikita Stasishin was appointed as the acting minister.[155]

On 6 May, Minister of Culture Olga Lyubimova was confirmed to have tested positive for the virus. Her First Deputy, Sergey Obryvalin was appointed as the acting minister.[156]

On 14 May, President Putin said that Education and Science Minister Valery Falkov had recovered from COVID-19.[157]

Presidential Administration[edit source | edit]

On 12 May, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov confirmed that he tested positive for the virus. He said that the last time he met President Putin in person was over a month ago.[158] Peskov was discharged on 25 May and returned to his duties.[159]

Polls[edit source | edit]

In a poll carried out by the Levada Center from 24 to 27 April 2020, 46% of respondents approved of the president's and federal government's measures in combating the virus, while 48% disapproved with 18% believing it was excessive and 30% believing it was not enough. In the same poll, 50% of respondents approved of their local government's measures, while 45% disapproved with 15% believing it was excessive and 30% believing it was not enough.[160][161]

In another poll by the Levada Center carried out from 22 to 24 May 66% said that they approved of the measures taken by the president and federal government, while 32% disapproved. In the same poll, 63% approved of their local government's measures while 33% disapproved.[162]

President Putin's approval rating and trust rating fell during the pandemic. Putin's approval rating fell from 63% in March 2020 to 59% in April and May in polls by the Levada Center - the lowest recorded by the pollster during his time in power. In May, Putin's trust rating fell to its lowest: 25% said that they trusted Putin the most (out of a list of politicians) compared to 59% in November 2017 when the Levada Center began the polls.[163][164]

Social impact[edit source | edit]

Event cancellations[edit source | edit]

On 5 March, First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov announced the cancellation of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum which was due to be held from 3 to 6 June 2020.[165]

On 11 March, Russian Defence Minister Sergey Shoygu cancelled the Moscow International Security Conference which had been scheduled for 22 to 23 April.[165]

On 17 March, TASS reported that all football, hockey and basketball games were suspended until 10 April.[166] This was later extended to 31 May.[167] On the same day, UEFA confirmed postponing Euro 2020 until summer 2021, one of the venues of which is Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg.[168]

Despite the fact that a conscription started on 1 April, conscripts won't be sent to duty stations until 20 May.[169]

On 16 April, President Putin postponed the 2020 Victory Day Parade.[170][171] On 26 May, President Putin announced that the 2020 Victory Day Parade would be held on 24 June, coinciding with the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.[41]

On 20 July, organisers for the "Immortal Regiment" march postponed the event to 9 May 2021.[172]

Religious services and organisations[edit source | edit]

On 17 March, the leadership of the Russian Orthodox Church published Instructions to rectors of parishes and monasteries’ town churches, abbots and abbesses of the monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church over the threat of spreading coronavirus infection (in English), which said it had been approved by the ROC's Holy Synod and instructed the ROC's clergy to use disposable cups, gloves, and facial tissue during sacraments and celebrations, disinfect church plates and premises regularly, and refrain from offering the hand for kissing.[173] A nearly identical Russian-language Instructions were addressed to the clergy of the Moscow diocese and said it had been approved by the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'.[174] When in St. Petersburg attendance of places of worship was restricted for the public on 26 March, the Moscow Patriarchate's lawyer deemed it unlawful.[175]

On 29 March, the ROC's Patriarch Kirill delivered a sermon in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour that urged people to refrain from visiting church, citing the life of St. Mary of Egypt.[176] On 3 April, Kirill issued an encyclical for the clergy and faithful of the "dioceses in the territory of the Russian Federation" urging the clergy to conduct church services without laypeople's presence.[177] As the city of Moscow decided to tighten lockdown measures starting from 13 April, and following a request from chief sanitary doctor of Moscow, the Patriarch's Vicar instructed that church services in the city diocese be held without public (laypeople).[178] A similar decision was taken in St. Petersburg.[179] As of 16 April 2020, according to RBK, 42 out of 85 federal subjects including Moscow, Moscow Oblast and Saint Petersburg, issued instructions to close places of worship for general public, which would extend into the Easter period, which in the Orthodox Church was to begin on 19 April.[180] Equivocation and occasionally contradictory instructions issued by the Moscow Patriarchate's top officials undermined the authority of the Church's leadership while restrictive measures caused opposition on the part of conservative circles of the ROC's congregation.[181][182] On Easter Sunday, the degree of admission restrictions, if any, to religious ceremonies varied significantly from region to region (federal subject), the ROC's branches outside the RF territory given free rein to find appropriate arrangement with local authorities.[183] While Patriarch Kirill presided over the Easter night service in Moscow's cathedral church with no laypeople in attendance, the ROC's most venerated St Trinity monastery in the Moscow region, which is under the Patriarch's direct spiritual authority, defied his directions by conducting Easter services as normal. This and similar incidents in other major monasteries led to massive spread of the COVID-19 infection in a number of the ROC's monasteries and seminaries in Russia as well as in Belarus and Ukraine.[182][184][185][186][187]

Various Muslim communities closed their mosques. In Moscow, the Cathedral Mosque, the Old Mosque, and the Memorial Mosque on Poklonnaya Hill closed on 18 March.[188] On 23 March, mosques in Crimea and Sevastopol were shut down.[189] On the next day, all the mosques in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea were closed as well.[190] Same measures were planned in Dagestan.[191]

On 18 March, Rabbi Berel Lazar closed the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue, Maryina Roshcha Synagogue, and Zhukovka Jewish Centre.[192] Eleven members of the community were hospitalised, with four COVID-19 cases confirmed, the first one being a rabbi who felt sick after Purim celebration on 9 March.[193][194] On 24 March, Rabbi Berel Lazar and the Federation of Jewish Communities recommended that all synagogues to close down and the community centres and Jewish schools switch to distance education.[195]

Victims[edit source | edit]

Clerics[edit source | edit]

For the clerics of the Russian Orthodox Church, only those serving in Russia are included

Entertainers[edit source | edit]

Medics[edit source | edit]

On 25 April 2020, it was reported that doctors had published and were updating a public list of colleagues who had died during the pandemic which, as of 22 July, has 605 names.[222][223]

Military personnel[edit source | edit]

Politicians[edit source | edit]

Scientists[edit source | edit]

People in sports[edit source | edit]

Statistics[edit source | edit]

The official national statistics include data by region. As of May 2020, some local governments were separately reporting their own data that differed from the national government's count.[242]

Data by federal subject[edit source | edit]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic data/Russia medical cases by federal subject

Charts[edit source | edit]

National[edit source | edit]

Total cases, active cases, recoveries, and deaths

  Total cases   Active cases   Recoveries   Deaths

New cases per day

  New cases

New recoveries per day

  New recoveries

New deaths per day

  New deaths

Regional[edit source | edit]

Total cases by federal subject

Syntax error

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<span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Moscow <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Moscow Oblast <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Saint Petersburg <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Sverdlovsk Oblast
<span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Khanty-Mansi AO <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Irkutsk Oblast <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Krasnoyarsk Krai <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Rostov Oblast <span class="legend-color" style=" Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". ">  Other regions

Daily new cases by federal subject

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Controversies and debate[edit source | edit]

The reason for such a relatively low number of deceased people from COVID-19 infection may be resulting from the vaccine programs, including the BCG vaccine, launched in the Soviet Union and Russia. Alexander Myasnikov, calling the phenomenon a "Russian Miracle", also quotes a healthy microbiota among Russians as a reason. Other medics and biologists, such as Alexander Ginzburg, director of the Epidemiological and Microbiological Research Institute in Honour of Gamaleya, also cite a high immunity among Russian people. Anna Popova, head of the Rospotrebnadzor, mentioned the effective epidemiology in Russia.[243] Another reason may be the use of dexamethasone in treatments at the early stages of the epidemic.[244][245].

In March, there was some scepticism about the accuracy of Russia's reported infection figures. Anastasia Vasilyeva, leader of the Doctors' Alliance organisation loosely aligned to the Russian opposition and doctor for opposition figure Alexei Navalny, made a series of videos accusing the authorities of concealing the true number of coronavirus cases by using pneumonia and acute respiratory infection as a diagnosis instead. Health officials rejected the allegation, and President Putin addressed concerns about statistics, saying that the government is not covering up the number of cases, though might not have the full picture. The WHO's representative to Russia, Dr. Vujnovic, also expressed scepticism at the allegation.[246][247][248][249]

In May, as Russia's mortality rate was much lower compared to other hard-hit countries, a number of media outlets including the Financial Times and New York Times have said that the number of deaths in the country may have been under-reported, based on a spike in mortality rates officially reported in Moscow where approximately 1,800 more deaths were registered in April compared to the monthly average, while the Financial Times noted a similar surge in St. Petersburg, concluding that there could be around 70% more deaths than reported.[250] The reported excess deaths however were still considerably smaller compared to other hard-hit areas in other countries.[251] Russian officials have criticised the media reports. Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova called the reports disinformation and said that letters demanding a retraction would be passed. Officials have said that the relatively low number of deaths is due to effective measures taken to fight the virus and that the scope of testing has significantly increased, allowing for infections to be spotted quickly. Moscow's health department also rejected the allegations, saying that autopsies were being conducted in all suspected coronavirus deaths, which was why "post-mortem diagnoses in Moscow and causes of death, in the end, are exceedingly accurate, and the mortality data absolutely transparent" – it said that over 60% of deaths in the city with suspected coronavirus infections were ascribed to other causes. The World Health Organisation's guidelines on reporting deaths, issued in mid-April, states that "deaths due to COVID-19" should be considered as such "unless there is a clear alternative cause of death that cannot be related to COVID disease."[250]

On 28 May, Moscow's health department said in a statement that the death toll for the city for April was 1,561 using a new methodology, where originally it was 636. It said that this included 756 people diagnosed with the virus but determined to have died of other causes and 169 people who tested negative but were suspected to have had the virus. The official death toll for the city or country had not been revised.[252]

On 3 June, the city of St. Petersburg reported a 32% higher death rate in May compared to the previous year. The city government said that 6,427 death certificates were issued, compared to 4,875 the previous year. For the same month, the official coronavirus death toll was 171 people.[253]

On 10 June, Moscow's health department increased the city's coronavirus death toll from 1,895 to 5,260 for May. It said in a statement that "COVID-19 as a main or an accompanying cause of death was registered in 5,260 cases". It also said that the difference was due to changes made by the Health Ministry in the approach of counting deaths, saying that "new recommendations allowed us to improve the calculation of cases where COVID was the main cause of the death and of those where it became, with a high degree of probability, a catalyst...for other illnesses".[254]

On 13 June, the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) published data on natural population changes in April. 2,712 people with COVID-19 died during April across Russia, including 1,660 as the primary cause of death. According to daily updates of the Emergency Operations Center, there were only 1,162 deaths from COVID-19.[255] Rosstat's published death toll includes both those where the virus was determined to the main cause of death, as well as where the main cause of death was determined to be something else. 1,270 deaths are where the virus was determined to be the main cause, 435 deaths where the virus had a "significant influence", 617 deaths where the virus was present but did not play a major role, and 390 deaths where the person tested negative but it was later determined to be the main cause of death. Officials including Tatiana Golikova said that the changes in the counting method follows WHO recommendations. She also said that the figures represent a 2.6% death rate among those infected, and that the death rate for May will be higher.[256] Pavel Malkov, the head of Rosstat, said in an interview with RBK published on 23 June that the statistics agency had published a higher death toll for April because it receives more complete data than the national coronavirus crisis centre and that it has a different calculation methodology, saying that the agency receives data from the Civil Registry Office and deals with death certificates that can take up to 45 days to complete following testing while the crisis centre publishes operational data manually entered into the system. He also said that "one of the biggest secrets in statistics is that it's practically impossible to manipulate" and that "if we're talking about a qualitative indicator with a developed methodology, then any attempt to affect the final numbers by distorting the input data will become immediately evident".[257][258]

On 10 July, Rosstat published data which said that COVID-19 was confirmed or assumed to be the main cause of death for 7,444 people who died in May. An additional 5,008 people with a COVID-19 diagnosis were determined to have died from other diseases, with the virus being a catalyst for 1,530 of those deaths. The death toll reported by the coronavirus crisis centre for May was 3,633. The data also said that 172,914 people had died in Russia in May, an increase of more than 18,000 compared to the same month last year.[259]

See also[edit source | edit]

Notes[edit source | edit]

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  115. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  116. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  117. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  118. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  119. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  120. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  121. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  122. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  123. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  124. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  125. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  126. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  127. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  128. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  129. 129.0 129.1 129.2 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  130. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  131. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  132. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  133. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  134. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  135. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  136. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  137. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  138. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  139. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  140. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  141. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  142. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  143. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  144. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  145. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  146. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  147. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  148. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  149. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  150. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  151. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  152. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  153. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  154. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  155. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  156. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  157. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  158. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  159. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  160. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  161. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  162. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  163. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  164. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  165. 165.0 165.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  166. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  167. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  168. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  169. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  170. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  171. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  172. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  173. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  174. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  175. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  176. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  177. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  178. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  179. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  180. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  181. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  182. 182.0 182.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  183. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  184. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  185. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  186. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  187. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  188. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  189. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  190. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  191. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  192. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  193. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  194. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  195. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  196. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  197. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  198. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  199. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  200. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  201. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  202. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  203. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  204. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  205. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  206. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  207. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  208. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  209. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  210. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  211. Умер пятый насельник Троице-Сергиевой лавры, заразившийся коронавирусом
  212. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  213. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  214. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  215. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  216. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  217. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  218. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  219. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  220. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  221. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  222. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  223. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  224. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  225. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  226. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  227. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  228. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  229. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  230. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  231. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  232. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  233. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  234. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  235. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  236. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  237. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  238. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  239. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  240. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  241. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  242. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  243. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  244. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  245. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  246. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  247. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  248. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  249. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  250. 250.0 250.1 Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  251. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  252. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  253. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  254. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  255. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  256. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  257. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  258. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
  259. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

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Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".

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    • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".
    • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".


Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "9".