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COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns

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Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 30 March 2020 (table; more details)
  National lockdown
  Subnational lockdown
  No lockdown

This article provides an overview of worldwide curfews, quarantines, and similar restrictions (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, shutdowns/lockdowns) related to the COVID-19 pandemic and established to prevent further spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19.[1]

Countries and territories around the world have enforced lockdowns of varying degrees. Some include total movement control while others have enforced restrictions based on time. Mostly, only essential businesses are allowed to remain open. Schools, universities and colleges have closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 186 countries, affecting approximately 98.5 per cent of the world's student population.[2]

All types of recreational venues and most public places have been affected.[citation needed]

Table of pandemic lockdowns[edit source | edit]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns

In the table pandemic lockdowns are defined as the shutdown of parts of the economy,[3] due to non-pharmaceutical anti-pandemic measures and are enforceable by law like:

These measures are considered to have caused the coronavirus recession in 2020.[4] The table does not contain:

The pandemic has resulted in the largest number of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.[citation needed]. By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[5] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April — more than half of the world's population.[6][7]

Restrictions first began in China,[8] with other countries in East Asia like Vietnam soon following it in implementing widespread containment measures. Much of Europe, North America and Africa took much longer to bring in tough measures. Lockdowns between and within nations are of varying stringency.[9]

By mid April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[10] around 100 million in the Philippines,[11] about 59 million in South Africa,[12] and 1.3 billion were under lockdown in India; the largest of all lockdowns.Check the list of COVID-19 Hotspots or containment Zones of India.[13][14]

By the end of April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in various countries of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom; while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[11]

Countries and territories with lockdowns[edit source | edit]

China[edit source | edit]

China, where the pandemic originated, was the first country to enforce the quarantine and lockdown of cities and later whole provinces, starting at the end of January. Although such measures are a very old tool of epidemic control,[15][16] their use at the scale of a large city such as Wuhan or the even larger scale of provinces was controversial among experts at the time, with questions on their effectiveness[17][18][19] and their ethics.[20][16][21] Some public health experts, while not always condemning the measure, raised the issue of the inevitable psychological toll such measures would have.[22][23][24] An ex-World Health Organization (WHO) official who headed the organization’s Western Pacific Region during the SARS outbreak said that "the containment of a city [hadn’t] been done in the history of international public health policy".[18] The WHO called the decision to quarantine Wuhan "new to science".[25] By early April, all lockdowns had ended or relaxed to a certain degree as the cases started to dwindle and the outbreak had come under control.[8][26]

Template:COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in mainland China

France[edit source | edit]

As of 23 March 2020,[27] all people are required to complete and carry an exemption form to leave their homes and can be fined for non-essential journeys.[27] Essential journeys include shopping for food, travelling to work, accessing healthcare, and exercising within 1 km of the home for up to 1 hour. Police around the country have set up road blocks to check people who were out and about had good reason and that their exemption declarations were in order.

India[edit source | edit]

On 22 March 2020, the Government of India decided to completely lockdown 82 districts in 22 states and Union Territories of country where confirmed cases have been reported till 31 March.[28] Essential services and commodities were allowed. 80 cities including major cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Kolkata were also put under lockdown until 31 March.[29] The country entered complete lockdown from 25 March 2020 for 21 days amid increase in number of cases.[30]

Italy[edit source | edit]

Malaysia[edit source | edit]

Namibia[edit source | edit]

Beginning 27 March, a 21-day lockdown of the regions of Erongo and Khomas was announced.[31] On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May. It now officially applied to all regions, although the stay-at-home order was already enforced countrywide. Only essential businesses remained open. Schools were closed, parliamentary sessions suspended, and generally all gatherings of more than 10 people were prohibited.[32] Formal and informal bars were closed and the sale of alcohol prohibited. This "stage 1" of the lockdown was in force until 4 May 2020. From then on, regulations are to be gradually eased.[33]

New Zealand[edit source | edit]

On 23 March 2020, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern raised New Zealand's COVID-19 alert level[34] to three and announced the closure of all schools beginning on that day - and two days later moved to Level 4 to four at 11:59 p.m. on 25 March 2020 - a nationwide lockdown. While all sporting matches and events as well as non-essential services such as pools, bars, cafes, restaurants, playgrounds closed, essential services such as supermarkets, petrol stations, and health services remained open.[35][36][37]

The alert level was moved back down to Level 3 at 11:59 pm on 27 April, and moved to Level 2 at 11:59 pm on 13 May, lifting the rest of the lockdown restrictions while maintaining physical distancing.[38]

Philippines[edit source | edit]

Reduced pedestrian and vehicle traffic in Baliuag, Philippines as a result of the enhanced community quarantine

Singapore[edit source | edit]

On 3 April 2020, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced that Singapore will be strengthening its restrictions as a movement control in view of evidence of growing spread within the community and the risk of asymptomatic spread from 7 April to 1 June. All non-essential services such as retail, recreation, sports and attractions, as well as schools are required to close during this period. Some essential services will remain open.[39] These measures include the prohibition of dining-in in eateries, suspending and/or reducing the frequency of bus and MRT services, and requiring almost all commercial and educational services to work and study from home respectively. All mid-year exams in primary, secondary schools and junior colleges, as well as graduation ceremonies during this period are cancelled. Military in-camp training for NSmen are also postponed till further notice.[40] On 8 April 2020, it was announced in Parliament that all residents have to serve a de-facto stay-at-home order, and wearing masks will be compulsory when going out for essentials and exercise. All gatherings, regardless of any size and in any area nationwide are totally banned, with enforcement by police, military and officers from the relevant government agencies.[41]

United Kingdom[edit source | edit]

At 8:30 p.m. on 23 March 2020, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a stay-at-home order effective immediately. All non-essential shops and services were ordered to close, and police were given discretion to break up gatherings of more than two people. The British public was told that they must stay at home, except for exercise (such as running, walking or cycling), shopping for essential items, any medical need, providing care to a vulnerable person, or travelling to work where the work in question was vital and could not be done from home. Johnson stated that the stay-at-home order would be reviewed after three weeks.[42]

United States[edit source | edit]

States, territories, and counties that issued a stay-at-home order:
  Came into effect before 22 March
  Came into effect before 29 March
  Came into effect before 5 April
  Came into effect before 12 April
Full map including municipalities

Stay-at-home orders in the United States have come from several states and a large number of local jurisdictions, sometimes leading to conflicts between different levels of government and a patchwork of inconsistent dates and rules.[43][44][45]

On 15 March 2020, Puerto Rico governor Wanda Vázquez Garced signed an executive order to order all citizens to stay home starting at 9 p.m. with exceptions in limited circumstances between 5 a.m. and 9 p.m. Governmental operations and non-essential businesses were to be closed until 30 March.[46]

The first order within the states was simultaneously imposed by health authorities in heart of the San Francisco Bay Area (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Mateo, and Santa Clara counties and the cities of San Francisco and Berkeley) effective 17 March 2020, affecting nearly 6.7 million people.[47] Other cities and counties across the state followed suit over the next two days, until Gavin Newsom, the governor of California, issued a statewide order effective 19 March 2020.[48]

On 20 March 2020, New York governor Andrew Cuomo announced the statewide stay-at-home order with a mandate that 100% of non-essential workforce to be conducted as working from home effective 22 March.[49] Illinois governor J. B. Pritzker followed that lead on the same day with a statewide order which would go into effect on 21 March at 5 p.m.[50] Ned Lamont, the governor of Connecticut, signed an executive order called "Stay Safe, Stay At Home" to take effect statewide on 23 March at 8 p.m.

On 21 March 2020, New Jersey governor Phil Murphy announced a statewide stay-at-home order effective at 9 p.m. on the same day.[51]

On 22 March 2020, Ohio governor Mike DeWine and Ohio Department of Health director Amy Acton issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 23 March.[52] In the afternoon, the Louisiana governor John Bel Edwards announced a statewide stay-at-home order in a press conference.[53] Delaware governor John Carney followed suit with a stay-at-home order for his state.[54]

On 23 March 2020, several state governors announced their statewide stay-at-home order:

  • Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker ordered non-essential businesses to close in-person operations effective 24 March until 7 April and directed the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to issue a stay-at-home advisory.[55]
  • Michigan governor Gretchen Whitmer announced her statewide executive order to stay-at-home at 11:00 am for all non-essential businesses effective 24 March until 28 May.[56]
  • Indiana governor Eric Holcomb announced statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March until 7 April.[57]
  • West Virginia governor Jim Justice ordered non-essential businesses to be closed immediately, and stay-at-home order effective at 8 p.m.[58]
  • After growing calls from local officials on Sunday, Oregon governor Kate Brown issued a stay-at-home order on Monday effective immediately with class C misdemeanor charges for violators.[59]
  • New Mexico governor Michelle Lujan Grisham announced a statewide stay-at-home order that requires 100% of non-essential business workforce to work from home effective 24 March until 10 April.[60]
  • Washington governor Jay Inslee signed a statewide stay-at-home proclamation and ordered to close non-essential businesses effective 25 March for two weeks.[61]
  • Hawaii governor David Ige issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March which was similar to the orders that were previously issued for Maui and Honolulu counties.[62][63]

On 24 March 2020, Wisconsin governor Tony Evers issued a statewide stay-at-home order to close all non-essential businesses and ordered no gatherings of any size effective 25 March until 24 April.[64] Vermont governor Phil Scott signed a stay-at-home order and directed closure of in-person operations of non-essential businesses effective 25 March until 15 April.[65]

On 25 March, Idaho governor Brad Little and Minnesota governor Tim Walz issued stay-at-home orders for their respective states.[66][67] Colorado Governor Jared Polis issued a stay at home order effective on Thursday the 26th at 6 a.m. through 11 April 2020.[68]

On 2 April, Georgia governor Brian Kemp issued stay-at-home order effective Friday, April 3, 2020, until Monday, April 13, 2020.[69] It overrules any local stay-at-home restrictions previously in place, and instructs residents to stay at home unless they're conducting "essential services," meaning either traveling to and from jobs or other exceptions, including buying groceries; purchasing medical equipment; going out to exercise; and visiting medical facilities.[70] The same day, Dr. Anthony Fauci publicly questioned why all states were not under stay-at-home orders.[71][72]

Native American Nations[edit source | edit]

On 20 March 2020, Navajo Nation announced that it broadened the stay-at-home order to cover the entire reservation, which is the largest reservation in the country.[73]

On 23 March 2020, Yakama Nation announced its "Stay Home, Stay Healthy" order.[74]

Countries and territories without lockdowns[edit source | edit]

Almost all countries and territories affected with COVID-19 have introduced and enforced some form of lockdown. However, countries like Korea and Taiwan, which relied on contact tracing by cellphones, have far fewer cases and death. Among the ones not following this strategy are, most notably, Sweden (the only European country with Belarus not to do so).[75] Measures in Sweden included the closing of universities and high schools and asking older and at-risk residents to avoid social contact, while keeping restaurants, primary schools and kindergartens open.[76][77]

Countries in Asia without lockdowns include, Japan,[78] South Korea[79] and Indonesia.[80][81] These countries have not enforced any strict lockdowns but have rather implemented large-scale social distancing and face mask wearing measures.[citation needed]

Nicaragua[82] is also yet to impose a lockdown while a proposed lockdown by the government has been ordered to be delayed by the High Court in Malawi.[83]

In the United States, a handful of states have not introduced any lockdown-type measures (commonly known as "stay-at-home orders").[84][85]

Countries and territories without lockdowns
Countries and territories Ref
Belarus [86]
Indonesia [80]
Japan [78]
Malawi [83]
Nicaragua [82]
South Korea [79]
Sweden [76]
Taiwan [87]
United States Arkansas [84][85]
North Dakota
South Dakota

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

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