A cup of hot tea to welcome you!

Welcome to Wikiafripedia, the free encyclopedia that you can monetize your contributions. Aimed at WAP ZERO to the sum of all knowledge.
WAP is made by people like you, sign up and contribute.

A cup of hot tea to welcome you!

Welcome to Wikiafripedia, the free encyclopedia that you can monetize your contributions. Aimed at WAP ZERO to the sum of all knowledge.

WAP is made by people like you, sign up and contribute.

Censorship in China

From Wikiafripedia, the free encyclopedia that you can monetize your contributions or browse at zero-rating.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A page about the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests on The Economist ripped out by China's censorship departments. Publications like The Economist are not allowed to be printed within mainland China; thus, China's censors can rip out unwanted contents from every imported publication by hand while clearing customs.

Template:Censorship by country Template:Politics of China

Censorship in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is implemented or mandated by the PRC's ruling party, the Communist Party of China (CPC). The government censors content for mainly political reasons, but also to maintain its control over the populace. The Chinese government asserts that it has the legal right to control the Internet's content within their territory and that their censorship rules do not infringe on the citizen's right to free speech.[1] Since Xi Jinping became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto paramount leader) in 2012, censorship has been "significantly stepped up".[2]

The government maintains censorship over all media capable of reaching a wide audience. This includes television, print media, radio, film, theater, text messaging, instant messaging, video games, literature, and the Internet. Chinese officials have access to uncensored information via an internal document system.

Reporters Without Borders ranks China's press situation as "very serious", the worst ranking on their five-point scale.[3] In August 2012, the OpenNet Initiative classified Internet censorship in China as "pervasive" in the political and conflict/security areas and "substantial" in the social and Internet tools areas, the two most extensive classifications of the five they use.[4] Freedom House, a US backed NGO, ranks the press there as "not free", the worst ranking, saying that "state control over the news media in China is achieved through a complex combination of party monitoring of news content, legal restrictions on journalists, and financial incentives for self-censorship,"[5] and an increasing practice of "cyber-disappearance" of material written by or about activist bloggers.[6]

Other views suggest that Chinese businesses such as Baidu, Tencent and Alibaba, some of the world's largest internet enterprises, have benefited from the way China blocked international rivals from the domestic market.[7]

Subject matter and agenda[edit source | edit]

Censorship in the PRC encompasses a wide range of subject matter. The agendas behind such censorship are varied; some are stated outright by the Chinese government itself and some are surmised by observers both inside and outside of the country.

According to the South China Morning Post, the Chinese government issues orders on a regular basis to 'guide' coverage of individual sensitive issues. As a result, media organizations submit to self-censorship, or run the risk of being closed down.[8]

Historical[edit source | edit]

The Chinese government regulates the creation and distribution of materials regarding Chinese history.[9] Particular emphasis is placed on combatting "historical nihilism". The Communist Party's historical research body, the Central Committee Party History Research Office, has defined historical nihilism as that which "seek[s] to distort the history of modern China's revolution, the CPC and the armed forces under the guise of" reevaluating existing narratives, and thus countering such nihilism is "a form of political combat, crucial to the CPC leadership and the security of socialism".[10] In practice, the term is often applied any narratives that challenge official Communist Party views of historical events.[11] Under Xi Jinping, the government began to censor digitized archival documents that contradict official depictions of history.[12][13]

One example of this is the censorship of historical writings about the Cultural Revolution. Although the Chinese government now officially denounces the Cultural Revolution, it does not allow Chinese citizens to present detailed histories of the suffering and brutality that ordinary people sustained.[14]

Questioning folk-historical stories, such as those of the Five Heroes of Mount Langya, can be a criminally liable offense.[15][16]

Political[edit source | edit]

The Council on Foreign Relations says that unwelcome views may be censored by authorities who exploit the vagueness in laws concerning publication of state secrets. Major media outlets receive guidance from the Chinese Department of Propaganda on what content is politically acceptable.[17] The PRC bans certain[which?] content regarding independence movements in Tibet and Taiwan, the religious movement Falun Gong, democracy, the Tiananmen Square protests and massacre of 1989, Maoism, corruption, police brutality, anarchism, gossip, disparity of wealth, and food safety scandals.[18][19]

In the lead-up to the Beijing Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for reporting during the Games: political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed and topics such as the Pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements as well as food safety issues such as "cancer-causing mineral water" were not to be reported on.[20] However, the government claims that such a list does not exist.[21] As the 2008 Chinese milk scandal broke out in September, the Chinese government also denied speculation from western media outlets that their desire for perfect games contributed towards the allegedly delayed recall of contaminated infant formula. This caused deaths and kidney damage in infants.[21][22][23] On 13 February 2009, Li Dongdong, a deputy chief of the General Administration of Press and Publication, announced the introduction of a series of rules and regulations to strengthen oversight and administration of news professionals and reporting activities. The regulations would include a "full database of people who engage in unhealthy professional conduct" who would be excluded from engaging in news reporting and editing work. Although the controls were ostensibly to "resolutely halt fake news", it was criticized by Li Datong, editor at the China Youth Daily who was dismissed for criticizing state censorship. Li Datong said "There really is a problem with fake reporting and reporters, but there are already plenty of ways to deal with that." Reuters said that although Communist Party's Propaganda Department micro-manages what newspapers and other media do and do not report, the government remains concerned about unrest amid the economic slowdown and the 20th anniversary of the pro-democracy protests in 1989.[24]

In January 2011, Boxun revealed that the Politburo member responsible for the Propaganda Department, Li Changchun, issued instructions for the Chinese media to downplay social tensions on issues such as land prices, political reform and major disasters or incidents, and to ensure reporting does not show the Communist party negatively. The Party warned that the media must "ensure that the party and government do not become the targets or focus of criticism", and any mention of political reforms must reflect the government in a favourable light.[8]

Moral[edit source | edit]

The government of China defended some forms of censorship as a way of upholding proper morals. Those forms of censorship include limitations on pornography,[25] particularly extreme pornography, and violence in films.[26] The government, through the National Radio and Television Administration (formerly the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television), has also banned performance artists from showing tattoos and displaying "hip-hop culture" under guidelines that prohibit "low-culture" or "problematic" morals.[27][28]

The Chinese government generally considers LGBT content to be obscene, and regularly censors non-pornographic depictions of such content in mass media. Positive depictions of same-sex relationships in movies and television have been taken off the air by censors because they are officially deemed immoral, vulgar, or otherwise inappropriate.[29] Controversy erupted in 2018 when Mango TV edited out Ireland's Eurovision song because it depicted two men holding hands and dancing together.[27] An LGBT flag waved during an earlier performance by Switzerland that year was also blurred out. The European Broadcasting Union subsequently terminated its relationship with Mango TV's parent company, Hunan Broadcasting System,[27] preventing any further airing of the Eurovision Song Contest in China.[30] Censors had also cut Albania's 2018 performance because of the lead singer's tattoos.[31]

Cultural[edit source | edit]

The PRC (People's Republic of China) has historically sought to use censorship to 'protect the country's culture,' and is seen as the cultural authority of China. During the Cultural Revolution of the 1970s, foreign literature and art forms, religious works and symbols, and even artifacts of ancient Chinese culture were deemed "reactionary" and became targets for destruction by Red Guards teams.[32]

Although much greater cultural freedom exists in China today, continuing crackdowns on banning foreign cartoons from Chinese prime time TV,[33] and limits on screening for foreign films could be seen as a continuation of cultural-minded censorship. The foreign TV shows and films on internet also become the target of censorship. In July 2017, Bilibili, one of the most popular video sites in China, removed most of American & British TV shows, and all foreign categories like "American drama" to comply with regulations.[34]

In order to limit outside influence on Chinese society, authorities began to restrict the publishing of children's books written by foreign authors in China from early 2017, reducing the number of these kind of books from thousands to hundreds a year.[35]

Religious[edit source | edit]

A number of religious texts, publications, and materials are banned or have their distributions artificially limited in the PRC. Foreign citizens are also prohibited from proselytizing in China,[36] and information concerning the treatment of some religious groups is also tightly controlled. Under Chinese law, a minor is forbidden to receive a religious education of any kind.[37]

The Falun Gong is subject to suppression in China, and virtually all religious texts, publications, and websites relating to the group have been banned, along with information on the imprisonment or torture of followers.[38]

Christian Bibles are allowed to be printed in China but only in limited numbers and through a single press. Their sale is also restricted to officially sanctioned churches, with online sales having been recently cracked down upon.[39][40][41][42] Religious literature is not readily available or universally tolerated. In January 2016, five people were arrested for simply "buying and selling officially forbidden Christian devotionals". They were sentenced to 3–7 years in jail.[43]

China banned a book titled《性风俗》 Xing Fengsu ("Sexual Customs") which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protesters, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs,[54] A collection of brain teasers published in Sichuan in 1993 caused similar effects, and the three editors of the book were sentenced to 2–5 years.[55] Hui Muslim protesters who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protesters were imprisoned.[56]

In 2007, anticipating the coming "Year of the Pig" in the Chinese calendar, depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV "to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities".[57] This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million Muslims (to whom pigs are considered "unclean").

In response to the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting Chinese state-run media attacked Charlie Hebdo for publishing the cartoons insulting Muhammad, with the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper, Global Times, said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism and accusing Charlie Hebdo of trying to incite a clash of civilizations.[58][59]

Economic[edit source | edit]

In recent years, censorship in China has been accused of being used not only for political protectionism but also for economic protectionism.[60][61][62] Tsinghua University professor Patrick Chovanec has speculated that the Chinese ban on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube may have been done in part to grant a business advantage to the websites' Chinese competitors.[61] Similarly, China has been accused of using a double standard in attacking Google for "obscene" content that is also present on Chinese competitor Baidu.[62][63] The 2D version of the blockbuster film Avatar was also pulled from screens in the country; reportedly for taking in too much money and seizing market share from domestic films.[64] Furthermore, the official ban on most foreign films hardly affect Chinese citizens; such films can easily be acquired in copyright-infringing formats, allowing Chinese to view such films to be financially accessible while keeping their money within the domestic economy.

In February 2007, the website of the French organization Observatoire International des Crises was banned in the PRC after it posted an article on the risks of trading with China.[60] "How do you assess an investment opportunity if no reliable information about social tension, corruption or local trade unions is available? This case of censorship, affecting a very specialised site with solely French-language content, shows the [Chinese] government attaches as much importance to the censorship of economic data as political content," the organization was quoted as saying.[60] In 2016, after a series of policy mishaps in the backdrop of severe economic downturn in the country, regulators, censors and government officials have increased censorship. Officials, regulators and censors acting to stem the flow of money abroad by creating an environment of "zhengnengliang" (positive energy), have warned to commentators whose remarks or projections on the economy contradict optimistic official statements.[65]

Military[edit source | edit]

Another justification for censorship is that the material could cause military harm. This type of censorship is intended to keep military intelligence secret from enemies or perceived enemies.[66]

Geographic[edit source | edit]

Private surveying and publication of geographic data (such as a map) without a permit is illegal in China, and geographic coordinates are obfuscated by a government-mandated coordinate system.

Media, communication and education controls[edit source | edit]

Collective expression[edit source | edit]

In 2013 the American Political Science Review published an article by Gary King, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts. The authors conducted an in-depth experiment that analyzed the censorship program in China. The article explains the construction and process of their experiment and the overall findings, which are documented and graphed. The experiment involved using computers from around the world to post comments to social media sites in China, and then seeing which ones got delayed or deleted by the censors. The authors conclude: "Our central theoretical finding is that, contrary to much research and commentary, the purpose of the censorship program is not to suppress criticism of the state or the Communist Party. Indeed, despite widespread censorship of social media, we find that when the Chinese people write scathing criticisms of their government and its leaders, the probability that their post will be censored does not increase. Instead, we find that the purpose of the censorship program is to reduce the probability of collective action by clipping social ties whenever any collective movements are in evidence or expected."[67]

Further experiments conducted by Gary King, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts show much about the mechanisms of censorship of social media. The authors explain that they "offer rigorous support for the recent hypothesis that criticisms of the state, its leaders, and their policies are published, whereas posts about real-world events with collective action potential are censored."[68] They found out that Chinese software companies are competing in order to offer better censor tools and systems, as demand for their services is rising. This is because the Chinese state holds the companies that run the social media sites responsible for doing some of the censoring. This means, ironically enough, that market mechanisms are supporting censorship in China.

Newspapers[edit source | edit]

On the twentieth anniversary of the pro-democracy protests in Tiananmen Square, the mainland media came under tremendous pressure from authorities. Ming Pao reported on the Publicity Department's "hitherto unimaginable extent" of pressure to screen out any related content. The journal reported two incidents in 2008 which caused official concern, but which could not be proven to be deliberate challenges: Beijing News published an image of an injured person being taken to the hospital on 4 June and Southern Metropolis Daily reported on unusual weather in Guangdong province with the headline of "4 storms in June," which both journals insisted were due to carelessness. Some newspapers have therefore instructed their editors to refrain from using the numbers '6' and '4' in their reports during this sensitive period. Furthermore, the numbers cannot be used in the headlines lest the Publicity Department disapprove.[69]

30 journalists and 74 netizens were reportedly imprisoned in China as of September 2014;[70][71] China had "44 journalists in prison, more than any other country."[72]

The Communist Party also often employs teams of writers (Chinese: 写作组; pinyin: xiězuò zǔ; literally: 'writing group') to write articles under pseudonyms for the People's Daily, the official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, as well as other journals.[73] These writing teams are most often employed under the Central Propaganda Department, the Central Organization Department, and the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee.[73] The main purpose of these writing groups is to spread the opinions and political thoughts of the Chinese Communist Party without these ideas being perceived as propaganda.[73] Writing teams consistently use the same pseudonyms to write about specific topics that they specialize in.[73] For example, Ke Jiaoping is the pseudonym for a writing group that publishes articles about technological education and He Zhenhua is the pseudonym for a writing group that publishes articles opposing separatism.[73]

Television[edit source | edit]

Foreign and Hong Kong news broadcasts in mainland China from TVB, CNN International, BBC World Service, and Bloomberg Television are occasionally censored by being "blacked out" during controversial segments. It is reported that CNN has made an arrangement that allowed their signal to pass through a Chinese-controlled satellite. Chinese authorities have been able to censor CNN segments at any time in this way.[74] CNN's broadcasts are not widely available throughout China, but rather only in certain diplomatic compounds, hotels, and apartment blocks.[75]

Numerous content which have been blacked out has included references to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989,[74] the Dalai Lama,[74] the death of Zhao Ziyang,[76] the 2008 Tibetan unrest,[74] the 2008 Chinese milk scandal[77] and negative developments about the Beijing Olympics.[78]

During the Summer Olympics in Beijing all Chinese TV stations were ordered to delay live broadcasts by 10 seconds, a policy that was designed to give censors time to react in case free-Tibet demonstrators or others staged political protests.[79]

In January 2009, during a television report of the inauguration of U.S. President Barack Obama, the state-run China Central Television abruptly cut away from its coverage of Obama's address when he spoke of how "earlier generations faced down fascism and communism."[80] Foreign animation is also banned from prime-time viewing hours (5pm to 8 pm) to protect domestic animation production.[81][82]

Like Internet censorship, enforcement in television censorship is increasingly ineffective and difficult because of satellite signal hacking systems which give direct access to channels and programs on any satellite that services the Asian Pacific region.[citation needed]

Film[edit source | edit]

China has a large diversity of different foreign films broadcast through the media and sold in markets. China has no motion picture rating system, and films must therefore be deemed suitable by Chinese censors for all audiences to be allowed to screen.[26][83]

For foreign-made films, this sometimes means controversial footage must be cut before such films can play in Chinese cinemas. Examples include the removal of a reference to the Cold War in Casino Royale,[84] and the omission of footage containing Chow Yun-fat that "vilifies and humiliates the Chinese" in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End.[85] Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics, the PRC administration announced that "wronged spirits and violent ghosts, monsters, demons, and other inhuman portrayals" were banned from audio visual content.[86]

Access to the 12,000 movie screens in China is a powerful incentive for film makers, especially those producing material such as Kung Fu Panda 3 to consult and cooperate with Chinese censors. Taking a Chinese partner, as was done in the case of Kung Fu Panda 3, can bypass the quota.[87] Despite this, almost all internationally released foreign films are freely available in Chinese- and English-language versions through the counterfeit trade in DVDs.[86]

All audio visual works dealing with "serious topics" such as the Cultural Revolution must be registered before distribution on the mainland.[88] For example, The Departed was not given permission to screen because it suggested that the government intends to use nuclear weapons on Taiwan.[89] Films with sexually explicit themes have also been banned, including Farewell My Concubine,[90] Brokeback Mountain and Memoirs of a Geisha.[91] Warner Brothers never submitted The Dark Knight for censors, citing "Cultural sensitivities in some elements of the film" due to the appearance by a Hong Kong singer whose sexually explicit photographs leaked onto the internet.[92] Films by PRC nationals cannot be submitted to foreign film festivals without government approval.[93]

On 16 December 2012, the film V for Vendetta was aired unedited on CCTV-6, which raised hopes that China is loosening censorship.[94] However, in August 2014 government officials caused the shutdown of the Beijing Independent Film Festival, an annual event for independent Chinese filmmakers to showcases their latest works. It was understood by the organizers the government was concerned the festival would be used as a forum to criticize the government.[95]

Literature[edit source | edit]

China's state-run General Administration of Press and Publication (新闻出版总署) screens all Chinese literature that is intended to be sold on the open market. The GAPP has the legal authority to screen, censor, and ban any print, electronic, or Internet publication in China. Because all publishers in China are required to be licensed by the GAPP, that agency also has the power to deny people the right to publish, and completely shut down any publisher who fails to follow its dictates.[96] Resultingly, the ratio of official-to-unlicensed books is said to be 40:60.[97] According to a report in ZonaEuropa, there are more than 4,000 underground publishing factories around China.[96] The Chinese government continues to hold public book burnings[98] on unapproved literature or books that have since fallen out of favor with the Communist Party line[99] though critics claim this spotlight on individual titles only helps fuel booksales.[100] Publishing in Hong Kong remains uncensored. Publishers such as New Century Press freely publish books, including lurid fictional accounts, about Chinese officials and forbidden episodes of Chinese history. Banned material including imported material such as that published by Mirror Books of New York City are sold in bookshops such as "People's Commune bookstore" patronized by shoppers from the mainland.[101]

Music[edit source | edit]

The album Chinese Democracy by American rock band Guns N' Roses is banned in China, reportedly due to supposed criticism in its title track of the government and a reference to the currently persecuted Falun Gong spiritual movement.[102] The government said through a state controlled newspaper that it "turns its spear point on China".[103][104] Also banned is the track "Communist China" by British rock group Japan.

The album X by Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue was released as a 10-track edition of the album by EMI Records. The album got three tracks banned due to strict censorship in the People's Republic of China. The tracks that were omitted were "Nu-di-ty", "Speakerphone" and "Like a Drug".[105]

China has historically issued bans to music acts who proclaim support of Tibetan independence or otherwise interact with the Dalai Lama, such as Oasis—which had concerts cancelled after lead singer Noel Gallagher had performed in a concert to benefit the movement, Maroon 5—which had concerts cancelled after a band member made a Twitter post celebrating his 80th birthday, and Lady Gaga—who became the subject of a ban issued by the Publicity Department after having posted an online video of her meeting with him.[106][107]

Internet[edit source | edit]

China's internet censorship is regarded by many as the most pervasive and sophisticated in the world. The system for blocking sites and articles is referred to as "The Great Firewall of China". According to a Harvard study conducted in 2002,[108] at least 18,000 websites were blocked from within the country, and the number is believed to have been growing constantly.[109] Banned sites include YouTube (from March 2009), Facebook (from July 2009),[110] Google services (including Search, Google+, Maps, Docs, Drive, Sites, and Picasa), Twitter, Dropbox, Foursquare, and Flickr.[111][112] Google was planning to launch a censored version of its search engine in China, blocking information about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest,[113] but it was terminated.[114] Certain search engine terms are blocked as well.

Reporters in the Western media have also suggested that China's internet censorship of foreign websites may also be a means of forcing mainland Chinese users to rely on China's own e-commerce industry, thus self-insulating their economy.[115] In 2011, although China-based users of many Google services such as Google+ did not always find the services entirely blocked, they were nonetheless throttled so that users could be expected to become frustrated with the frequent timeouts and switch to the faster, more reliable services of Chinese competitors.[116] According to BBC, local Chinese businesses such as Baidu, Tencent, and Alibaba, some of the world's largest internet enterprises, benefited from the way China has blocked international rivals from the market, assisting domestic companies.[7]

More recently, under current Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping, there has been a big push to improve information technology and use the improved technology as a means to further promote propaganda and the Communist Party agenda. This initiative has been successful, and by the end of 2015, almost 700 million Chinese citizens had internet access. However, with this improvement in technological access, there is now much more efficient communication regarding current events and government issues through social media, resulting in broader discussions amongst Chinese netizens on government policies and affairs; the government has implemented rules and preventative measures to counter the spread of negative public opinion regarding the Communist Party and governmental affairs.[clarification needed] For example, Article 246. Section 1 in Criminal Law states that unlawful posts that are shared over 500 times or seen over 5000 times will result in the poster being charged with up to 3 years in prison.[117][118]

The regulation of public opinion was tightened after the National Propaganda and Ideology Work Conference in August 2013.[119] At the conference, General Secretary Xi Jinping underscored the importance of "ideological work" in strengthening and uniting China; more specifically, he strongly emphasized the need to suppress controversies, "mistaken viewpoints", and rumors on every public platform.[120] Shortly after this conference, a nationwide Internet Cleaning-up Campaign (净网行动) was implemented, during which there was a widespread deletion of blogs containing views deviating from those of the Party.[120] That same month in 2013, the government also made a concerted attack against "Big V's" (verified social media celebrities with large public influence) who had a history of online activism and rumor-mongering.[120]

Yang Qiuyu, Zhou Lubao, and Qin Huo Huo are three "Big V's" that were arrested between 21 and 23 August 2013 on charges of rumormongering and slander.[121] In that same month, Chinese-American investor Charles Xue (Xue Manzi), one of the most popular liberal social commentators on Chinese social media, was also arrested.[122] Three weeks after his arrest, he appeared on CCTV-1 (a Chinese TV channel), confessing that he "irresponsibly posted rumors about political and social issues online," and commending the new internet regulations passed under General Secretary Xi Jinping's administration.[123] These arrests served as an example to the rest of the "Big V's" as well as other Chinese internet users to be careful of what they expressed online; in fact, even five months after these arrests in August, there was a noticeable decrease in the number of posts and discussions from prominent online figures.[118] On popular microblogging site Weibo, opinion leaders decreased their posts by around 40% from the previous year.[124] By 2015, instances of censored posts from popular Weibo accounts included messages that were only mildly critical of the government – for example, the blocking of sarcastic comments in the wake of a widely viewed documentary about urban air pollution in China entitled, Under the Dome (Chinese: 穹顶之下; pinyin: qióng dǐng zhī xià).[125]

From 2017 onwards, Chinese censors began removing all images of the character Winnie the Pooh in response to the spread of memes comparing General Secretary Xi Jinping to the plump bear, as well as other characters from the works of A.A. Milne, later leading to the film Christopher Robin being denied release in China.[126]

The Chinese government also employs people as "black PRs" to remove information from the Internet and criticize those who speak negatively about the government.[117] Network operators are obligated by the Cyberspace Administration to assist the government in monitoring and removing "illegal information" online.[119] Moreover, the Cybersecurity Law that went into effect on 1 June 2017 forces internet providers to identify internet users, facilitating control and monitoring of public expression online.[124]

The State Council has the right to cut off network access or shut down internet access in response to incidents it deems a risk to national security.[119] For example, in response to the 2009 riots in Xinjiang, the Chinese government restricted internet access in the region and shut down the social media platforms Twitter and Fanfou.[117]

Text messaging[edit source | edit]

According to Reporters without Borders, China has over 2,800 surveillance centers devoted to text messaging. As of early 2010, cell phone users in Shanghai and Beijing risk having their text messaging service cut off if they are found to have sent "illegal or unhealthy" content.[127]

In 2003, during the severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome (SARS) outbreak, a dozen Chinese were reportedly arrested for sending text messages about SARS.[128] Skype reported that it was required to filter messages passing through its service for words like "Falun Gong" and "Dalai Lama" before being allowed to operate in China.[129]

During protests over a proposed chemical plant in Xiamen during the summer of 2007, text messaging was blocked to prevent the rallying of more protesters.[130]

Video games[edit source | edit]

In 2004, the Ministry of Culture set up a committee to screen imported online video games before they entered the Chinese market. It was stated that games with any of the following violations would be banned from importation:[131]

  • Violating basic principles of the Constitution
  • Threatening national unity, sovereignty, and territorial integrity
  • Divulging state secrets
  • Threatening state security
  • Damaging the nation's glory
  • Disturbing social order
  • Infringing on others' legitimate rights

The State General Administration of Press and Publication and anti-porn and illegal publication offices have also played a role in screening games.[132]

Examples of banned games have included:

The historic ban of major video game consoles in the country was lifted in 2014 as part of the establishment of the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone.[135] Consoles had been banned under a rule enacted in 2000 to combat the perceived corrupting influence of video games on young people.[136]

Education[edit source | edit]

Educational institutions within China have been accused of whitewashing PRC history by downplaying or avoiding mention of controversial historical events such as the Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[137][138]

In 2005, customs officials in China seized a shipment of textbooks intended for a Japanese school because maps in the books depicted mainland China and Taiwan using different colors.[139]

In a January 2006 issue of Freezing Point, a weekly supplement to the China Youth Daily, Zhongshan University professor Yuan Weishi published an article entitled "Modernization and History Textbooks" in which he criticized several middle school textbooks used in mainland China.[140][141] In particular, he felt that depictions in the books of the Second Opium War avoided mention of Chinese diplomatic failures leading up to the war and that depictions of the Boxer Rebellion glossed over atrocities committed by the Boxer rebels. As a result of Yuan's article, Freezing Point was temporarily shut down and its editors were fired.[137][142]

New Threads, a website for reporting academic misconduct in China such as plagiarism or fabrication of data, is banned in China.[143]

A new standard world history textbook introduced in Shanghai high schools in 2006 supposedly omits several wars; it mentions Mao Zedong, founder of the PRC, only once.[137]

In a FRONTLINE segment, four students from Peking University are seemingly unable to identify the context of the infamous Tank Man photo from the 1989 unrest sparked by Peking University students, though possibly, the students were feigning ignorance so as not to upset the party official who was monitoring the interview with clipboard in hand.[144] The segment implied that the subject is not addressed in Chinese schools.

On 4 June 2007, a person was able to place a small ad in a newspaper in southwest China to commemorate the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests reading "Paying tribute to the strong(-willed) mothers of 4 June victims". The accepting clerk claimed that he was ignorant of the event and believed that 4 June was the date of a mining disaster.[145]

A confidential internal directive widely circulated within the Communist Party of China, Concerning the Situation in the Ideological Sphere (關於當前意識形態領域情況的通報), prohibiting discussion of seven topics, was issued in May 2013. Included on the list of prohibited topics were: Western constitutional democracy, universal values of human rights, Western conceptions of media independence and civil society, pro-market neo-liberalism, and "nihilist" criticisms of past errors of the party.[146][147]

During the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China, academic research concerning the origins of the virus was censored.[148]

During the Cultural Revolution[edit source | edit]

The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to get rid of the "four olds" ("old customs," "old culture," "old habits," and "old ideas"). If newspapers touched on sensitive topics like these, the journalists were subject to arrests and sometimes violence. Libraries in which there were books containing "offensive literature" would often be burned down. Television was regulated by the government and its goal was to encourage the efforts of chairman Mao Zedong and the Communist Party. Radio was the same way, and played songs such as, "The Great Cultural Revolution is Indeed Good".[149][150]

Responses from society[edit source | edit]

Self-censorship[edit source | edit]

Although being independent from the mainland's legal system and hence censorship laws, some Hong Kong media have been accused of practicing self-censorship in order to exchange for permission to expand their media business into the mainland market and for greater journalistic access in the mainland too.[151][152]

At the launch of a joint report published by the Hong Kong Journalists Association (HKJA) and "ARTICLE 19" in July 2001, the Chairman of the HKJA said: "More and more newspapers self-censor themselves because they are controlled by either a businessman with close ties to Beijing, or part of a large enterprise, which has financial interests over the border."[153] For example, Robert Kuok, who has business interests all over Asia, has been criticized over the departures of several China desk staff in rapid succession since he acquired the South China Morning Post, namely the editorial pages editor Danny Gittings, Beijing correspondent Jasper Becker, and China pages editor Willy Lam. Lam, in particular departed after his reporting had been publicly criticized by Robert Kuok.[153]

International corporations such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, MySpace, Shutterstock, and Yahoo! voluntarily censor their content for Chinese markets in order to be allowed to do business in the country.[154][144][155][156] In October 2008, Canadian research group Citizen Lab released a new report saying TOM's Chinese-language Skype software filtered sensitive words and then logged these, with users' information to a file on computer servers which were insecure.[157] In September 2007, activists in China had already warned about the possibility that TOM's versions have or will have more trojan capability.[158] Skype president Josh Silverman said it was "common knowledge" that Tom Online had "established procedures to meet local laws and regulations ... to monitor and block instant messages containing certain words deemed offensive by the Chinese authorities."[157]

Marketing[edit source | edit]

Publishers and other media in the Western world have sometimes used the "Banned in China" label to market cultural works, with the hope that censored products are seen as more valuable or attractive. The label was also used by Penguin Books to sell Mo Yan's novel The Garlic Ballads, which had been pulled from bookshelves because of its themes (anti-government riots) being published so close to a period of actual riots. However, the book was allowed to be sold in China in a few years. Political scientist Richard Curt Kraus criticized Penguin for falsely portraying Mo Yan as a dissident in order to increase his marketability, as well as the underlying assumption that if the United States bans some work, that it must be genuinely obscene, but that if the Chinese government does the same, it is acting on purely political grounds.[159]

On the Internet, people use proxy websites that allow anonymous access to otherwise restricted websites, services, and information.[111] Falun Gong and others have been working in the field of anti-censorship software development.

Circumventing censorship[edit source | edit]

Chinese citizens frequently use many techniques to circumvent Internet censorship in order to discuss social and political current events on online platforms and gain access to web pages blocked by the Great Firewall of China.

Public relay servers such as virtual private networks (VPNs) and The Onion Router nodes (Tor nodes) are widely used by Chinese netizens in order to visit blocked web pages.[160] Typically, Internet Service Providers can view an internet user's traffic and data; however, virtual private networks connect internet users to a server through an encrypted connection.[161] This prevents Internet Service Providers from being able to access the internet users' IP addresses, data, activity, and physical location.[161] As a result, the internet user can access blocked websites through this external server.[161] VPNs are so widely used by Chinese netizens that many journalists, both within Party-sanctioned media outlets and private media outlets, are instructed by their editors and supervisors to use VPNs in order to access international news.[162]

Chinese netizens also use the method of "tunneling" to access blocked webpages.[163] Tunneling is when information is transmitted using a different communications protocol than the usual.[163] One example of tunneling is if internet user "A" in China emailed internet user "B" in America asking for the contents of a blocked webpage.[163] Internet user "B" could then respond with an email containing the contents of that blocked webpage, allowing internet user "A" to access the censored information.[163] This method can be generalized by Web-page-by-mail services; for example, if an internet user emails web@cnn.com with the URL of a CNN webpage, that internet user will receive an email containing the contents of that specific Webpage.[163]

Mirrored web pages are another way to circumvent Internet censorship by the Great Firewall of China.[163] A web page can be mirrored simply by recreating that page under a different URL.[164] Because of the large scope of the Internet, it becomes near impossible for internet filters to identify and block all of the different mirrors of blocked webpages under their various non-specific URLs, increasing public access to censored information.[163]

Netizens also have methods to express their opinions online without being censored by the government.[165] The primary method is in the form of code words, metaphors, or plays on words.[165] For example, the phrase "Grass Mud Horse" (Cao Ni Ma) is commonly used by netizens as a pun on a homophonous profanity; this phrase has been broadly used to signify a subversive means of broaching topics not permitted by the government, and it has been used by netizens advocating for greater freedom of speech.[165] The rise of online satire and code words used to mock or criticize the government or sociopolitical issues has formed a subculture on the Chinese Internet called "egao", which translates literally into "evil doings" in Chinese.[166] These code words and phrases allow netizens to discuss topics ranging from government corruption to health and environment scandals to everyday society and culture.[167] Through this subculture, Chinese netizens can broach sensitive issues on social media with less risk of government censorship.[166]

Besides Internet censorship, Chinese citizens have devised methods to circumvent censorship of print media as well. As news organizations in China try to move away from the reputation of simply being mouthpieces for Communist Party propaganda, they face a difficult challenge of having to report the news objectively while remaining on good terms with the government.[162] Journalists do their best to resist government censorship by maintaining a relatively neutral balance of positive and negative tones in articles, reporting on officials who have already been officially removed from their positions, disparaging the Communist Party as an entity instead of targeting individual officials, and focusing blame on lower-ranking officials.[162] News organizations encourage their journalists to report on more sensitive yet risky articles by promising journalists compensation even if their articles get cut by government officials before publication.[162] Editors also try to ensure job security by continuing to employ a journalist under another position even when told by the Communist Party to fire that journalist for disobeying Party protocol.[162]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. Bristow, Michael (8 June 2010). "China defends internet censorship". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  2. Denyer, Simon (25 October 2017). "China's Xi Jinping unveils his top party leaders, with no successor in sight". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  3. "The News by Country". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2006.
  4. "China". Country Profiles. OpenNet Initiative. 9 August 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  5. "freedomhouse.org: Press Release". freedomhouse.org. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  6. "CMB special feature: Cyberdisappearance in Action" Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, China Media Bulletin: Issue No. 29 (14 July 2011), Freedom House. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Carrie Gracie. Alibaba IPO: Chairman Ma's China Archived 2 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine. BBC. 8 September 2014.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Agence France-Presse (21 January 2011). "Propaganda arm orders pro-party reporting, say rights groups", South China Morning Post
  9. Wang, Youqing (2007). "Finding a Place for the Victims: The Problem in Writing the History of the Cultural Revolution". China Perspectives. 4 (72): 65–74.
  10. "Party history researcher warns against "historical nihilism"". China Daily. Xinhua. 3 July 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  11. "Security squeeze in China's capital ahead of communist anniversary celebration". The Straits Times. Agence France-Press. 6 September 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  12. Bland, Ben (4 September 2017). "China rewrites history with new censorship drive". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  13. Tiffert, Glenn D. (April 2019). "Peering down the Memory Hole: Censorship, Digitization, and the Fragility of Our Knowledge Base". The American Historical Review. 124 (2): 550–568. doi:10.1093/ahr/rhz286.
  14. Wang, Youqing (2007). "Finding a Place for the Victims: The Problem in Writing the History of the Cultural Revolution". China Perspectives. 4 (72): 65–74..
  15. Chin, Josh (2 August 2016). "In China, Xi Jinping's Crackdown Extends to Dissenting Versions of History". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  16. Kiki Zhao (28 June 2016). "Chinese Court Orders Apology Over Challenge to Tale of Wartime Heroes". New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  17. Xu, Beina (7 April 2015). "Media Censorship in China". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.
  18. "Censorship and Freedom of Speech". Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  19. Minemura, Kenji (26 March 2010). "China bans reporting on 18 subjects". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  20. Stephen Hutcheon, Was China's milk scandal hushed up? Archived 15 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, "The full list of edicts" Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, New Zealand Herald (15 September 2008)
  21. 21.0 21.1 China accused over contaminated baby milk Archived 19 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph (15 September 2008)
  22. China Milk Scandal Spreads; Hong Kong Girl Sickened", Bloomberg (21 September 2008)
  23. Al Guo, "First arrests made in tainted milk scandal", Page A4, South China Morning Post (16 September 2008)
  24. China to introduce journalist "black list" Archived 13 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 13 February 2009
  25. Richardson, Tim (2 August 2004). "China terminates 700 sites in porn crackdown". The Register. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  26. 26.0 26.1 "China sinks Dead Man's Chest". The Guardian. London. 10 July 2006. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010. China passes only 20 foreign films each year for cinematic viewing and does not have a film rating system.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 "China cuts off tattoo, LGBT elements from Eurovision contest feed - Global Times". Global Times. 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  28. Quackenbush, Casey; Chen, Aria (22 January 2018). "China Has Banned Hip-Hop Culture and Tattoos From TV Shows". Time. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  29. Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (4 March 2016). "China bans depictions of gay people on television". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  30. "Eurovision 2018: Chinese channel barred from airing contest". BBC. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  31. Codrea-Rado, Anna (11 May 2018). "China Is Banned From Airing Eurovision After Censoring Performance With Gay Theme". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  32. Gao, Yuan (1 June 1987). Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804765893.
  33. 9月1日起17-20点禁播境外动画片 Archived 2 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine,《三湘都市报》,2006-08-12
  34. TV fans angry after foreign shows suddenly pulled from popular Chinese video-sharing sites Archived 10 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine. South China Morning Post.
  35. Feng, Emily (10 March 2017). "China restricts access to foreign children's books". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  36. "Information on China". A Briggs. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007. Individuals believed to be engaged in religious proselytism or in conduct Chinese officials consider immoral or inappropriate have been detained and expelled
  37. Mansfield, Katie (28 August 2016). "Chinese government shuts down underground churches to 'transform thoughts' of Christians". Express.co.uk. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  38. Congressional Executive Commission on China, 2010 Annual Report, "Congressional-Executive Commission on China" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  39. Robertson, Laura (4 April 2007). "China Puts Bibles in Hotel Rooms for the Olympics". CBN News. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007.
  40. "China Bans Online Bible Sales as It Tightens Religious Controls – The Boston Globe". www.bostonglobe.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  41. Johnson, Ian (5 April 2018). "China Bans Online Bible Sales as It Tightens Religious Controls". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  42. "China bans online Bible sales amid crackdown on religious freedom". Newsweek. 5 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  43. "5 Chinese Christians Jailed as Gov't Continues to Crackdown [sic] on Church". CBN.com – The Christian Broadcasting Network. 1 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  44. Beijing Review. 32. Beijing Review. 1989. p. 13.
  45. Gladney 1991, p. 2.
  46. Schein 2000 Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 154.
  47. Gladney 2004 Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 66.
  48. Bulag 2010 Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 104.
  49. Gladney 2005 Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 257.
  50. Gladney 2013 Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 144.
  51. Sautman 2000 Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 79.
  52. Gladney 1996 Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 341.
  53. Lipman 1996, p. 299.
  54. Harold Miles Tanner (2009). China: a history. Hackett Publishing. p. 581. ISBN 978-0-87220-915-2. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  55. "《脑筋急转弯》案依法审理判决-中国穆斯林1995年04期-手机知网". wap.cnki.net. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  56. Gladney 2004 Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 232.
  57. Lim, Louisa (6 February 2007). "Ban Thwarts 'Year of the Pig' Ads in China". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  58. "Charlie Hebdo Attack Shows Need for Press Limits, Xinhua Says". The Wall Street Journal. 12 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  59. "Beijing jumps onto Paris attack to feed state propaganda machine". Japan Times. 10 May 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 "French website blocked for warning of risks of investing in China". Reporters Without Borders. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Chovanec, Patrick (2 January 2010). "Al Jazeera: Internet Censorship in China". Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  62. 62.0 62.1 "Regulators Target Google for Pornographic Content, CCTV Airs Fake Interview, Netizens React". China Digital Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2010. Similarly, other search engines such as Baidu and Bing contain the same kinds of pornographic information, but CCTV completely ignores them. Netizens made screen captures to show that Baidu is no less vulgar than Google.cn
  63. Epstein, Gady (11 February 2010). "China's Porn Trick". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2010. Officials had better luck last year beating up on an easier target, the foreign interloper Google, accusing the search engine of allowing too much porn to show up in results. By picking on a suspect foreign company, officials can raise their profile and buttress domestic competitors, all while winning points internally for backing a popular campaign.
  64. MacArtney, Jane (19 January 2010). "Confucius says no to 'subversive' blockbuster Avatar". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2010. Reportedly, the authorities have two reasons for this check on Avatar: first, it has taken in too much money and has seized market share from domestic films, and second, it may lead audiences to think about forced removal, and may possibly incite violence.
  65. Wei, Lingling (4 May 2016). "China Presses Economists to Brighten Their Outlooks". Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2017 – via www.wsj.com.
  66. editor, Noël Merino, book (2010). Censorship. Detroit [Mich.]: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 9780737747317. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  67. King, Gary (May 2013). "American Political Science Review" (PDF). How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression. American Political Science Review. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  68. King, Gary (August 2014). "Harvard University" (PDF). Reverse-engineering censorship in China: Randomized experimentation and participant observation. Research Article. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  69. "敏感期審查嚴 記者行文盡避「6」「4」 (Tighter Inspections During Sensitive Period – Journalists avoid '6' and '4')" (in Chinese). 29 May 2009. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
  70. "China". Journalists imprisoned. Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  71. "China". Netizens imprisoned. Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  72. Lam, Willy Wo-Lap, ed. (2018). "The CCP propaganda system". Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Communist Party. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 9781134847372. OCLC 1001435006.
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 Tsai, Wen-Hsuan; Kao, Peng-Hsiang (2013). "Secret Codes of Political Propaganda: The Unknown System of Writing Teams". The China Quarterly. 214: 394–410. doi:10.1017/s0305741013000362. ISSN 0305-7410.
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 Vassileva, Ralitsa (14 March 2008). "China's media crackdown" (video). CNN. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  75. Vause, John (9 April 2008). "San Francisco Torch Relay Broadcast". CNN.
  76. "News black-out on death of former top leader Zhao Ziyang". Reporters without Borders. 28 January 2005. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  77. Raymond Li (16 September 2008). "Censorship hammer comes down over scandal". South China Morning Post, p. A5.
  78. Oconnor, Ashling (10 March 2008). "Haile Gebrselassie pulls out of Beijing marathon". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008. News of the development is struggling to reach audiences in China, where transmissions of BBC World were mysteriously suspended when the station relayed the story.
  79. Barbara Demick (22 January 2009). "Chinese media censor Obama's inaugural speech". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  80. Chris O'Brien (21 January 2009). "Obama's address censored in China". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  81. "D'Oh! China bans Simpsons Primetime". Today/Associated Press. 14 August 2006. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  82. "China 'bans primetime Simpsons'". BBC News. 14 August 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  83. Lee, Min (18 January 2007). "'Departed' Banned From China Theaters". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007.
  84. "Judi Dench continues to earn Academy's respect". CTV News. 25 January 2007. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  85. China censors "Pirates" for "vilifying Chinese" Archived 30 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 17 June 2007, Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  86. 86.0 86.1 "Regulators now spooked by ghost stories". Reuters. 14 February 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  87. Michael Cieply; Brooks Barnes (14 January 2013). "To Get Movies into China, Hollywood Gives Censors a Preview". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  88. Bandurski, David (13 July 2006). "China vows to crack down on unauthorized distribution of audiovisual works". China Media Project. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  89. Josh Grossberg: China Whacks The Departed Archived 10 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, ENEWS, 18 January 2007, Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  90. Kristof, Nicholas D. (4 August 1993). "China Bans One of Its Own Films; Cannes Festival Gave It Top Prize". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  91. "Chinese censors 'ban' Brokeback". 28 January 2006. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2012 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  92. "Dark Knight won't be on big screen in China – BBC". Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  93. "Chinese director 'given film ban'". BBC News. 4 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
  94. "China anti-censorship hopes rise after state TV airs V for Vendetta". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  95. "Suspicious authorities shut down independent film festival in Beijing". Beijing Bulletin. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  96. 96.0 96.1 "General Administration of Press and Publication". CECC. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
  97. "The Underground Publishing Industry in China". ZoneEuropa. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
  98. Sheng, John. "Afterthoughts on the Banning of "Shanghai Baby"". Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
  99. Shih, Gerry (9 December 2019). "China's library officials are burning books that diverge from Communist Party ideology". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  100. "Naughty CHINA". Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
  101. Chris Buckley (18 May 2013). "On Hong Kong Shelves, Illicit Dirt on China's Elite". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  102. "內地封殺 GN'R 唱片" [Mainland blocked GN'R album]. Apple Daily (in Chinese). China: Next Media. 24 November 2008. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  103. "'Venomous' Guns N' Roses album slammed in China". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  104. Bodeen, Christopher (25 November 2008). "Rock album 'an attack on China'". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  105. "Kylie Minogue X China CD ALBUM (436290)". Esprit International Limited. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  106. Phillips, Tom (17 July 2015). "Maroon 5 Dalai Lama tweet may have led to cancelled China concerts". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  107. "China 'bans Lady Gaga' after Dalai Lama meeting". The Guardian. 27 June 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  108. Jonathan Zittrain and Benjamin Edelman (March–April 2003). "Empirical Analysis of Internet Filtering in China". IEEE Internet Computing. Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard Law School. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2007.
  109. "Chinese firms to increase censorship of online content". BBC News. 7 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  110. Sadie Bass (8 July 2009). "China's Facebook Status: Blocked". ABC News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  111. 111.0 111.1 Bamman, D; O'Connor, B; Smith, N (5 March 2012). "Censorship and deletion practices in Chinese social media". First Monday. 17 (3). doi:10.5210/fm.v17i3.3943.
  112. "China blocks access to Bloomberg and Businessweek sites" Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 29 June 2012.
  113. "Google Plans to Launch Censored Search Engine in China, Leaked Documents Reveal · Ryan Gallagher". The Intercept. 1 August 2018. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  114. "Google's Project Dragonfly 'terminated' in China". BBC. 17 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  115. Carter, Tom (5 March 2007). "The Chinese Internet Crash of 2007 – Calamity or Capitalism?". Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
  116. Google+ 'blocked in China' Archived 19 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian 30 June 2011
  117. 117.0 117.1 117.2 Creemers, Rogier (2017). "Cyber China: Upgrading Propaganda, Public Opinion Work and Social Management for the Twenty-First Century" (PDF). Journal of Contemporary China. 26 (103): 85–100. doi:10.1080/10670564.2016.1206281. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  118. 118.0 118.1 Shao, Peiren; Wang, Yun (1 June 2017). "How does social media change Chinese political culture? The formation of fragmentized public sphere". Telematics and Informatics. Special Issue on Social Media in China. 34 (3): 694–704. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2016.05.018.
  119. 119.0 119.1 119.2 Lei, Ya-Wen (14 November 2017). The Contentious Public Sphere: Law, Media, and Authoritarian Rule in China. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400887941.
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 Garrick, John; Bennett, Yan Chang (2016). China's Socialist Rule of Law Reforms Under Xi Jinping. Routledge. ISBN 9781317354161.
  121. Goatly, Andrew; Hiradhar, Preet (17 March 2016). Critical Reading and Writing in the Digital Age: An Introductory Coursebook. Routledge. ISBN 9781317205807.
  122. "China's tragic crackdown on social media activism". Fortune. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  123. "Detained Chinese-American blogger confesses to 'irresponsible' online posts". NBC News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  124. 124.0 124.1 Han, Rongbin (7 November 2017). "New (and Not So New) Trends in China's Online Censorship". China Policy Institute: Analysis. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  125. Auer, Matthew; Fu, King-wa (2015). "Clearing the Air: Investigating Weibo Censorship in China: New Research to Show Censorship of Microbloggers Who Spoke out about Pollution Documentary". Index on Censorship. 44 (3): 76–79. doi:10.1177/0306422015605724.
  126. "Winnie the Pooh film denied release in China". BBC News. 6 August 2018. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  127. "Text message service cut off for 'bad' words". China Daily. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  128. Richardson, Tim (2 July 2004). "China snoops on text messages". The Register. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  129. "The Great Firewall of China". Business Week. 12 January 2006. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
  130. "Thousands protest against S.China chemical plant". Reuters. 1 June 2007. Archived from the original on 26 November 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  131. "Censorship on imported online games strengthened". Xinhua. 31 May 2004. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  132. "50 illegal electronic games banned". Xinhua. 26 January 2006. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  133. 133.0 133.1 "Swedish video game banned for harming China's sovereignty". Xinhua. 29 May 2004. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
  134. "Computer game cracked down on for discrediting China's image". Xinhua. 19 March 2004. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
  135. "China's free trade zone regulations set, ready for video game console sales". Polygon. 21 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  136. "Ubisoft Gains on Console Sales as China Lifts Ban". Bloomberg News. 1 January 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  137. 137.0 137.1 137.2 Kahn, Joseph (1 September 2006). "Where's Mao? Chinese Revise History Books". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  138. Forney, Matthew (13 April 2008). "China's Loyal Youth". New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2008. Textbooks headed for a Japanese school in China were seized by customs officials who objected to the way maps in the books depicted the Chinese mainland and rival Taiwan, an official said Tuesday. The maps showed the mainland and the island in different colors, said Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Jianchao, indicating that Beijing was concerned this might make Taiwan seem like a separate country.
  139. Stephan Grauwels (28 June 2005). "Beijing Seizes Japan Textbooks for Content". The Associated Press.
  140. 袁伟时 (11 January 2006). "Archived copy" 现代化与历史教科书 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  141. "History Textbooks in China". EastSouthWestNorth. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  142. Pan, Philip P. (25 January 2006). "Leading Publication Shut Down in China". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  143. "An unlikely victim of China's censorship". UPI Asia.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  144. 144.0 144.1 "The Tank Man" (video). The Struggle to Control Information. FRONTLINE (WGBH Boston, PBS. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  145. "Young clerk let Tiananmen ad slip past censors: paper". Reuters. 6 June 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  146. "China Warns Officials Against ‘Dangerous’ Western Values" Archived 6 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Chris Buckley New York Times, 13 May 2013.
  147. "China Takes Aim at Western Ideas" Archived 21 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Chris Buckley, New York Times, 19 August 2013.
  148. Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Graham-Harrison, Emma; Kuo, Lily (11 April 2020). "China clamping down on coronavirus research, deleted pages suggest". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  149. "Living the Revolution: Television in China". Morning Sun. Long Bow Group, Inc. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  150. Newth, Mette. "The Long History of Censorship". Beacon for Freedom of Expression. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  151. Zhang, Tao (November 2006). "Media Control and Self-Censorship in Hong Kong". Trend Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  152. CHRIS BUCKLEY and MICHAEL FORSYTHE: Buckley, Chris; Forsythe, Michael (16 January 2015). "Press Freedom in Hong Kong Under Threat, Report Says". THE NEW YORK TIMES. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  153. 153.0 153.1 Freedoms eroded to please Beijing: report Archived 18 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Standard, 2 July 2001
  154. Biddle, Sam (6 November 2019). "In China, Shutterstock Censors Hong Kong and Other Searches". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2019. SHUTTERSTOCK, THE WELL-KNOWN online purveyor of stock images and photographs, is the latest U.S. company to willingly support China’s censorship regime, blocking searches that might offend the country’s authoritarian government, The Intercept has learned.
  155. "Facebook 'made China censorship tool'". BBC News. 23 November 2016. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  156. John Naughton. 2019. Western tech giants must stop kowtowing to China’s bullying Archived 18 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine Opinion. The Guardian.
  157. 157.0 157.1 China 'spying on Skype messages' Archived 18 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (3 October 2008)
  158. Dynamic Internet Technology Inc. Alleges Skype Redirects Users in China to Censorware Version – Ten Days After Users Are Able To Download Freegate Software Through Skype Archived 8 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine, TMCnet, 24 September 2007
  159. Kraus, Richard Curt (2004). The Party and the Arty in China: The New Politics of Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 130–134.
  160. Yuen, Samson (2015). "Becoming a cyber power: China's cybersecurity upgrade and its consequences". China Perspectives (2): 53–58. Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  161. 161.0 161.1 161.2 "How does a VPN work?". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  162. 162.0 162.1 162.2 162.3 162.4 Simons, Margaret; Nolan, David; Wright, Scott (2017). "'We are not North Korea': propaganda and professionalism in the People's Republic of China". Media, Culture & Society. 39 (2): 219–237. doi:10.1177/0163443716643154.
  163. 163.0 163.1 163.2 163.3 163.4 163.5 163.6 Lacharite, Jason (1 July 2002). "Electronic Decentralisation in China: A Critical Analysis of Internet Filtering Policies in the People's Republic of China". Australian Journal of Political Science. 37 (2): 333–346. doi:10.1080/10361140220148188. ISSN 1036-1146.
  164. "What is Mirror Site? – Definition from Techopedia". Techopedia.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  165. 165.0 165.1 165.2 Qiang, Xiao (15 April 2011). "The Battle for the Chinese Internet". Journal of Democracy. 22 (2): 47–61. doi:10.1353/jod.2011.0020. ISSN 1086-3214.
  166. 166.0 166.1 Baker, Mona; Blaagaard, Bolette B. (10 June 2016). Citizen Media and Public Spaces. Routledge. ISBN 9781317537502.
  167. "China Digital Space". chinadigitaltimes.net. Archived from the original on 26 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.

Template:Censorship Template:Censorship in China